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Karlodinium Micrum

Fast Fact:

In large numbers, Karlodinium veneficum will give the water a coffee color.  Release toxins called Karlotoxins which are lethal to fish. Highest concentrations observed of this species was on Sept. 9, 1982 in Bodkin Creek (1,322,500 cells / ml water).

Other names Gyrodinium galatheanum, Gymnodinium galatheanum (Braarud 1950)
Seasonal dominance Summer.
Distribution Mesohaline.
Description 10-16 um long, 6.5-12 um wide.  Cells have several chloroplasts in epitheca and hypotheca.  Very similar to G.estuariale.

Trine Bergholtz, Niels Daugbjerg, Øjvind Moestrup, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor (2006) On the Identity of Karlodinium veneficum and Description of Karlodinium armiger sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), Based on Light and Electron Microscopy, Nuclear-encoded LSU RDNA, and Pigment Composition. Journal of Phycology 42 (1), 170193.

Braarud T. 1957. A Red Water Organism From Walvis Bay. Galathea Reports 1:137-138.

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