Pfiesteria Bibliography

Pfiesteria Bibliography (last updated PT 9/05/02)
Allen, I.C. 2000. Utilization of PCR and FISH to determine fine scale and global
distribution of Pfiesteria species. Master’s thesis. University of North Carolina,
Greensboro, NC.

Anonymous. 1997. Pfiesteria toxins explored. Jama-J. Am. Med. Assoc. 278(19):1563.

Anonymous. 1998. Feds respond to Pfiesteria fears. Fisheries 23(11):43-44.

Berry, J.P., K.S. Reece, K.S. Rein, D.G. Baden, L.W. Haas, W.L. Ribeiro, J.D. Shields,
R.V. Snyder, W.K. Vogelbein and R.E. Gawley. 2002. Are Pfiesteria species toxicogenic? Evidence against production of ichthyotoxins by Pfiesteria shumwayae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Bowers, H.A., T. Tengs, H.B. Glasgow, J.M. Burkholder and D.W. Oldach. 2000.
Development of real-time PCR assays for rapid detection of Pfiesteria piscicida
and related dinoflagellates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:4641-4648.

Burkholder, J.M., M.A. Mallin, H.B. Glasgow. 1999. Fish kills, bottom water hypoxia
and the toxic Pfiesteria complex in the Neuse River and Estuary. Mar. Ecol. Prog.
Ser. 179:301-310.

Burkholder, J.M. 1999. The lurking perils of Pfiesteria. Sci. Amer. 28(2):42-49.

Burkholder, J.M. and H.B. Glasgow Jr. 1997.Pfiesteria piscicida and other toxic
Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates: Behaviour, impacts and environmental controls.
Limnol. Oceanogr. 42(5):1052-1075 Part 2.

Burkholder, J.M., H.B. Glasgow Jr., and A.J. Lewitus. 1997. Physiological ecology of Pfiesteria piscicida, with general comments on “ambush predator” dinoflagellates. In: The physiological ecology of harmful algal blooms, D.M. Anderson, A.D. Cembella and G.M. Hallegraeff (eds.). NATO, Paris.

Burkholder, J.M. 1997. Implications of harmful marine microalgae and heterotrophic
dinoflagellates in management of sustainable marine fisheries. Special issue, National Academy of Sciences Ocean Studies Board on Management of Sustainable Marine Fisheries. Ecol. Applications.

Burkholder, J.M., H.B. Glasgow Jr., and A.J. Lewitus. 1996. Stimulation of nontoxic
stages of the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida by inorganic nitrogen and
phosphorus. Abstract: Abstracts of the joint meeting of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography and the American Geophysical Union. San Diego, CA.

Burkholder, J.M., M.A. Mallin, H.B. Glasgow Jr., L.M. Larsen, M. Holden, C. Scalia, N.
Dreamer-Melia, J. Springer, D. Briley and E. Hannon. 1997. Rupture of a large
swine holding lagoon in North Carolina, U.S.A.: Impacts on a coastal river and estuary. J. Environ. Qual. 26(6):1451-1466.

Burkholder, J.M., H.B. Glasgow Jr., and C.W. Hobbs. 1995. Fish kills linked to a toxic ambush-predator dinoflagellate: distribution and environmental conditions. Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser. 124:43-61.

Burkholder, J.M. and H.B. Glasgow Jr. 1995. Interactions of a toxic estuarine dinoflagellate with microbial predators and prey. Archiv fur Protistenkunde 145:177-178.

Burkholder, J.M. and H.B. Glasgow Jr. 1995. Response of the toxic estuarine
dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida to N and P from organic and inorganic sources.
In: Abstracts, Annual Meeting of the American Society of Limnology and
Oceanography, July 11-15, Reno, Nevada.

Burkholder, J.M., H.B. Glasgow Jr. and K.A. Steidinger. 1995. Stage transformations in
the complex life cycle of an ‘ambush-predator’ estuarine dinoflagellate. In:
Lassus, P. G. Arzul, E. Erard, P. Gentien, and C. Marcaillou (eds.). Harmful
marine algal blooms. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 567-572.

Burkholder, J.M. and H.B. Glasgow Jr. 1994. The enriched life of an ambush predator: a
new ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate in eutrophic estuaries (Abstract) In: Proceedings,
12th Biennial International Estuarine Research Federation Conference, Hilton
Head, SC. Page 16.

Burkholder, J.M., H.B. Glasgow Jr., E.J. Noga, and C.W. Hobbs. 1993. The role of the newly discovered toxic dinoflagellate in finfish and shellfish kills in the Neuse and Pamlico Estuaries. Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Study report No. 93-08. NC DEHNR and U.S. EPA National Estuary Program, Raleigh, pp.1-58.

Burkholder, J.M., E.J. Noga, C.W. Hobbs, H.B. Glasgow Jr., and S.A. Smith. 1992. New ‘phantom’ dinoflagellate is the causative agent of major estuarine fish kills.
Nature 358:407-410; 360:768.

Burkholder, J.M. and H.B. Glasgow. 1999. Science ethics and its role in the early
suppression of the Pfiesteria issue. Human Organization 58:443-462.

Burkholder, J.M. and H.B. Glasgow. 2001. Toxic Pfiesteria in North Carolina estuaries
from 1991 to the present. Bioscience 51:827-841.

Burkholder, J.M., H.B. Glasgow and N. Deamer-Melia. 2001. Overview and present
status of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 40(3):186-214.

Burkholder, J.M., H.B. Glasgow, N.J. Deamer-Melia, J. Springer, M.W. Parrow, C.
Zhang and P.J. Cancellieri. 2001. Species of the toxic Pfiesteria complex and the importance of functional type in the data interpretation. Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):667-680.

Burkholder, J.M., H.G. Marshall, H.B. Glasgow, D. W. Seaborn and N.J. Deamer-Melia. 2001. The standardized fish bioassay procedure for detecting and culturing actively toxic Pfiesteria used by two reference laboratories for Atlantic and Gulf Coast States. Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):745-756.

Burkholder, J.M., H.B. Glasgow and N. Deamer-Melia. 2001. Overview and present
status of the toxic Pfiesteria complex in the Neuse river and estuary. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 179:301-310.

Cancellieri, P.J., N.J. Deamer-Melia, H.B. Glasgow and J.M. Burkholder. 2001.
Chemosensory attraction of zoospores of the estuarine dinoflagellates Pfiesteria
to finfish mucus and excreta. J. Exp. Marine. Biol. Ecol. 264:29-45.

Civelek, A.C., V.L. Villemange, R.F. Dannals, et al. 1999. Assessment of changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism by FDG PET in subjects exposed to Pfiesteria infected water. J. Nucl. Med. 40(5):112P-112P Suppl. S.

Dykstra, M.J. and A. Kane. 2000. Pfiesteria piscicida and ulcerative mycosis in menhaden - current status of understanding. J. Aquatic Anim. Health 12(1):18-25.

Everton, R.K., W.T. Harlan, J.W. Priest, and M.S. Alling. 1999. Virginia’s Pfiesteria monitoring program: water quality. Va. J. Sci. 50(4):311-324.

Faith, S.A. and C.A. Miller. 2000. A newly emerging toxic dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria
: natural ecology and toxicosis to fish and other species. Vet. Hum.
Toxicol. 42(1):26-29.

Fairey, E.R., J.S.G. Edmunds, N.J. Deamer-Melia, et al. 1999. Reporter gene assay for fish-killing activity produced by Pfiesteria piscicida. Env. Health Persp. 107(9):711-714.

Fleming, L.E., J. Easom, D. Baden, et al. 1999. Emerging harmful algal blooms and
human health: Pfiesteria and related organisms. Toxicol. Pathol. 27(5):573-581.

Fox, J.L. 1999. Human illness and fish kills connected to Pfiesteria outbreaks. ASM
News 64(12):676-677.

Glasgow, H.B. Jr. and J.M. Burkholder. 1993. Comparative saprotrophy by flagellated
and amoeboid stages of an ichthyotoxic estuarine dinoflagellate (Abstract). In:
Abstracts, Sixth International Conference on Toxic Marine Phytoplankton,
Nantes, France, October 1993. Ministere de Affaires Etrangeres, Nantes, p. 87.

Glasgow, H.B. Jr., J.M. Burkholder, D.E. Schmecel, P.A. tester and P.A. Rublee. 1995.
Insidiuous effects of a toxic dinoflagellate on fish survival and human health. J. Toxicol. and Environ. Health. 46:501-522.

Glasgow, H.B., A.J. Lewitus and J.M. Burkholder. 1998. Feeding behavior of the
ichthyotoxic estuarine dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, on amino acids, algal
prey and fish vs. mammalian erythrocytes. In Harmful microalgae (Reguera, B. J. Blanco, M.L. Fernandez and T. Wyatt, eds) pp. 394-397. Xunta de Galicia and International Governmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.

Glasgow, H. 2000. The biology and impacts of toxic Pfiesteria complex species. Ph.D.
dissertation. Dept. Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raliegh, NC 175pp.

Glasgow, H.B., J.M. Burkholder, S.L. Morton and J. Springer. 2001. A second species of  ichthyotoxic Pfiesteria (Dinamoebales, Dinophyceae). Phycologia 40:234-245.

Glasgow, H.B., J.M. Burkholder, M.A. Mallin, N.J. Deamer-Melia and R.E. Reed. 2001.
Field ecology of toxic Pfiesteria complex species and a conservative analysis of their relationship to estuarine fish kills. Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):715-730.

Glasgow, H.B. J.M. Burkholder, S.L. Morton, J. Springer and M.W. Parrow. 2001. The
fish killing activity and nutrient stimulation of a second toxic Pfiesteria species. In Proc. Of the Ninth International Conference on Algal Blooms by G.M. Hallegraeff, S. Blackburn, C. Bolch and R. Lewis (eds.). IOC UNESCO, Paris.

Gordon, A.S., B.J. Dyer, D. Seaborn and H.G. Marshall. 2002. Comparative toxicity of
Pfiesteria spp., prolonging toxicity of P. piscicida in culture and evaluation of toxin(s) stability. Harmful Algae 1:85-94.

Grattan, L.M., D. Oldach, and T.M. Perl, et al. 1998. Learning and memory difficulties
after environmental exposure to waterways containing toxin-producing Pfiesteria
or Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates. Lancet 352(9127):532-539.

Griffith, D. 1999. Exaggerating environmental health risk: the case of the toxic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria. Human Organization. 58:119-126.

Guo, C., P.A. Tester and J.M. Burkholder. 1994. Production, growth and feeding rates of
the zoospores of Pfiesteria piscimorte. (Abstract) In: Proceedings of the American
Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Miami, FL. Page A-32.

Hileman, E. 1997. Pfiesteria health concerns realized. Chem. Eng. News 75(41):14-15.

Jakobsen, K.S., T. Tengs, A. Vatne, H.A. Bowers, D.W. Oldach, J.M. Burkholder, H.B.
Glasgow, P. A. Rublee and D. Klaveness. 2002. Discovery of the toxic dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria, from northern European waters. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. (B) 269:211-214.

Kleindinst, J. L. and D.M. Anderson. 2001. Pfiesteria-related educational products and
information resources available to the public, health officials and researchers.
Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):695-698.

Krantz, G., J.M. Burkholder, and H.B. Glasgow, Jr. 1994. Response of oysters to a
culture of toxin producing ‘phantom’ dinoflagellates. Proceedings, Annual
Meeting of the American Shellfish Association, Charleston, SC. p. 24.

Luttenburg, D., D. Turgeon and J. Higgins. 2001. Reports from the NOAA workshops to
standardize protocols for monitoring toxic Pfiesteria species and associated environmental conditions. Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):707-710.

Landsburg, J.H, K.A. Steidinger, and B.A. Blakesley. 1995. Fish-killing dinoflagellates
in a tropical aquarium. In: Lassus, P. G. Arzul, E. Erard, P. Gentien, and C.
Marcaillou (eds.). Harmful marine algal blooms. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 65-70.

Law, M. 2001. Differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions in fish. Env. Health. Persp.
109(suppl 5):681-686.

Levin, E.D., B.B. Simon, D.E. Schmechel, H.B. Glasgow, N.J. Deamer-Melia, J.M. Burkholder, V.C. Moser, K. Jensen and G.J. Harry. 1999. Pfiesteria toxin and learning performance. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 21(3):215-221.

Levin, E.D., D.E. Schmechel, J.M. Burkholder, et al. 1997. Persisting learning deficits in
rats after exposure to Pfiesteria piscicida. Env. Health Persp. 105(12):1320-1325.

Levin, E.D., A.H. Rezvani, N.C. Christopher, H.B. Glasgow, N.J. Deamer-Melia, J.M.
Burkholder, V.C. Moser, and K. Jensen 2000. Rapid neurobehavioral analysis of Pfiesteria piscicida effects in juvenile and adult rats. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 22:533-540.

Levin, E.D. 2001. A rat model of the cognitive impairment from Pfiesteria piscicida
exposure. Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):757-764.

Levin, E.D., B.B. Simon, D.E. Schmechel, H.B. Glasgow, N.J. Deamer-Melia, J.M.
Burkholder, V.C. Moser, K. Jensen and G.J. Harry. 1999. Pfiesteria toxin and learning performance. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 21(3):215-221.

Lewitus, A.J., R.V. Jesien, T.M. Kana, J.M. Burkholder, H.B. Glasgow, Jr., E. May.
1995. Discovery of the ‘phantom’ dinoflagellate in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries

Lewitus, A.J., H.B. Glasgow, Jr. and J.M. Burkholder. 1999. Kleptoplastidy in the toxic
dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae). J. Phycol. 35(2):303-312.

Lewitus, A.J., B.M. Willis, K. C. Hayes, J.M. Burkholder, H.B. Glasgow, Jr., P.M. Glibert, and M. K. Burke. 1999. Mixotrophy and nitrogen uptake by Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae).J. Phycol. 35:1430-1437.

Lewitus, A.J., K.C. Hayes, B.M. Willis, J.M. Burkholder, A.F. Holland, P.A. Rublee and
R. Magnien. 2001. Low abundance of the dinoflagellates, Pfiesteria piscicida, P. shumwayae and Cryptoperidiniopsis spp. in South Carolina estuaries: Relevance as reference sites to areas impactive by Pfiesteria toxic events. In Proc. Of the Ninth International Conference on Algal Blooms by G.M. Hallegraeff, S. Blackburn, C. Bolch and R. Lewis (eds.). IOC UNESCO, Paris.

Litaker, R.W., P.A. Tester, A. Colorni, M.G. Levy and E.J. Noga. 1999. The
phylogenetic relationship of Pfiesteria piscicida, cryptoperidiniopsoid sp.
Amylodium ocellatum and a Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellate to other dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. J. Phycol. 35:1379-1389.

Lipton, D.W. 1999. Pfiesteria’s economic impact on seafood industry sales and
recreational fishing. Proceedings of the Conference, Economics of Policy
Options for Nutrient Management and Pfiesteria (B.L. Gardner and L. Koch, ed.).
Center for Agricultural and Natural Resource Policy, University of Maryland,
College Park. 35-38, 1999.

Lutz, L.L. and J.W. Burnett. 1998. Pfiesteria piscicida. Cutis. 61(3):122.

Magnien, R.E. 2001. State monitoring activities related to Pfiesteria-like organisms. Env.
Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):711-714.

Magnien, R.E. 2001. The dynamics of science, perception and policy during the outbreak
of Pfiesteria in Chesapeake Bay. BioScience 51:843-852.

Marshall, H.G., A.S. Gordon, D.W. Seaborn, B. Dyer, W.M. Dunstan and A.M. Seaborn. 2000. Comparative culture and toxicity studies between the toxic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida and a morphologically similar cryptoperidiniopsoid dinoflagellate. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 255:51-74.

Mallin, M.A., J.M. Burkholder, L.M. Larsen and H.B. Glasgow. 1995. Response of two
zooplankton grazers to an ichthyotoxic estuarine dinoflagellate. J. Plankton Res. 17:351-363.

Marshall, H.G. 1999. Pfiesteria piscicida and Dinoflagellates similar to Pfiesteria. Va J.
Sci. 50(4):281-286.

Marshall, H.G., D. Seaborn, and J. Wolny. 1999. Monitoring results for Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria-like organisms from Virginia waters in 1998. Va. J. Sci. 50 (4): 287-298.

McClellan-Green, P.D., E.J. Noga, D.G. Baden, L.A. Jaykus, and D.P. Green. 1997. Cytotoxicity of a putative toxin from the Pfiesteria piscicida dinoflagellate. Toxicologist 36:276.

Melo, A.C., P.D.R. Moeller, H. B. Glasgow., J.M. Burkholder and J.S. Ramsdell. 2001.
Microflourometric analysis of a Purigenic receptor (P2X7) in GH4C1 rat pituitary cells: Effects of bioactive substance produced by Pfiesteria piscicida. Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):731-738.

Mlot, C. 1997. Unraveling a fish killer’s toxic ways. Science News. 152:149. (September
6, 1997).

Mlot, C. 1997. Pfiesteria piscicida puts focus on harmful aquatic microbes. ASM News

Moeller, P.D.R., S.L. Morton, B.A. Mitchell, S.K. Sivertsten, E.R. Fairy, T.K. Mikulski,
H.B. Glasgow, N.J. Deaner-Melia, J.M. Burkholder and J.S. Ramsdell. 2001. Current progress in the isolation and characterization of toxins isolated from Pfiesteria piscicida. Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):739-744.

Morris, J.G. 1999. Harmful algal blooms: an emerging public health problem with possible links to human stress on the environment. Ann. Rev. Energy Env. 24:367-390.

Morris, J.G. 1999. Pfiesteria, “the cell from hell”, and other toxic algal nightmares. Clin.
Infect. Dis. 28(6):1191-1196.

Noga, E.J. S.A. Smith, J.M. Burkholder, C.W. Hobbs, and R.A. Bullis. 1993. A new
ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate: cause of acute mortality in aquarium fishes.
Veterinary Record 133:48-49.

Noga, E.J., L. Khoo, J.B. Stevens, Z. Fan. J.M. Burkholder. 1995. Novel toxic
dinoflagellate causes epidemic disease in estuarine fish. Marine Poll. Bull.

Noga, E.J. 1998. Toxic algae, fish kills and fish disease. Fish Pathol. 33(4):337-342.

Oldach DW, Delwiche CF, Jakobsen KS, Tengs T, Brown EG, Kempton JW, Schaefer
EF, Bowers HA, Glasgow HB Jr, Burkholder JM, Steidinger KA, Rublee PA.
2000. Heteroduplex mobility assay-guided sequence discovery: elucidation of the
small subunit (18S) rDNA sequences of Pfiesteria piscicida and related
dinoflagellates from complex algal culture and environmental sample DNA pools.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Apr 11; 97(8):4303-8.

Oldach, D.W. 1999. Regarding Pfiesteria. Human Organization. 58:459-460.

Oldach, D., C. Delwiche, K. Jakiobsen, T. Tengs, E. Brown, J. Kempton, H. Bowers, H.
Glasgow, J. Burkholder, K. Steidinger, and P. Rublee. 2000. Heteroduplex mobility assay guided sequence discovery: elucidation of the small subunit (18S) rDNA sequence of Pfiesteria piscicida from complex algal culture and environmental sample DNA pools. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 97:4304-4308.

O’Reilly, R.L. 1999. The Virginia Task force on Pfiesteria. Virginia J. Science

Paolisso, M. and E. Chambers. 2001. Culture, politics and toxic dinoflagellate blooms:
the anthropology of Pfiesteria. Human Organization 60:1-12.

Parrow, M.W., H.B. Glasgow, J.M. Burkholder and C. Zhang. 2001. Pfiesteria piscicida, P. shumwayae and a co-occurring “Lookalike” species. In Proc. Of the Ninth International Conference on Algal Blooms by G.M. Hallegraeff, S. Blackburn, C. Bolch and R. Lewis (eds.). IOC UNESCO, Paris.

Parrow, M.W., J.M. Burkholder, N.J. Deamer and C.Zhang. 2002. Vegetative and sexual
reproduction in Pfiesteria spp. (Dinophyceae) cultured with algal prey, and inferences for their classification. Harmful Algae 1:5-33.

Parrow, M.W. and J.M. Burkholder. 2002. Flow cytometric determination of zoospore
DNA content and population DNA distribution in cultured Pfiesteria spp. (Pyrrhophyta). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 267:35-51.

Pinckney, J.L., H.W. Paerl, E. Haugen, et al. 2000. Responses of phytoplankton and Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellate zoospores to nutrient enrichment in the Neuse River estuary, North Carolina, USA. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 192:65-78.

Rogers, H.S. and L. Backer. 2001. Fish bioassay and toxin induction experiments for
research on Pfiesteria piscicida and other toxic dinoflagellates: workshop summary. Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):769-774.

Rubin, C., M.A. McGeehin, A. K. Holmes, L. Backer, G. Burreson, M. C. Early, D.
Griffith, R. Levine, W. Litaker, J. Mei, L. Naeher, L. Needham, E. Noga, M. Pole
and H. S. Rogers. 2001. Emerging areas of research reported during the CDC National conference on Pfiesteria: From public health to biology. Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):633-638.

Rublee, P.A., J. Kempton, E. Schaefer, J.M. Burkholder, H.B. Glasgow and D. Oldach. 1999. PCR and FISH detection extends the range of Pfiesteria piscicida in estuarine waters. Va. J. Sci. 50(4):325-336.

Rublee, P.A., J.W. Kempton, E.F. Schaefer, C. Allen, J. Harris, D.W. Oldach, H. Bowers, T. Tengs, J.M. Burkholder and H.B. Glasgow. 2001. Use of molecular probes to assess geographic distribution of Pfiesteria species. Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):765-768.

Samet, J., G. S. Bignami, R. Feldman, W. Hawkins, J. Neff and T. Smayda. 2001.
Pfiesteria: Review of the science and identification research gaps. Report for the National Center for Environmental Health Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):639-660.

Steidinger, K., J. Landsberg, R. W. Richardson, E. Truby, B. Blakesley, P. Scott, P.
Tester, T. Tengs, P. Mason, S. Morton, D. Seaborn, W. Litaker, K. Reece, D. Oldach, L Haas, and G. Vasta. 2001. Classification and identification of Pfiesteria and Pfiesteria-like species. Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):661-666.

Seaborn, D.W., A. M. Seaborn, W.M. Dunstan and H.G. Marshall. 1999. Growth and feeding studies on the algal feeding stage of a Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellate. Va. J. Sci. 50(4):337-344.

Shimkets, L.J. 1993. Environmental microbiolgy [feature on Pfiesteria pp.363-364, 512.
In: Encyclopedia Brittanica - Science and the Future, 1994 Yearbook.

Silvergeld, E.K., L. Grattan, D. Oldach and J.G. Morris. 2000. Pfiesteria: harmful algal
blooms as indicators of human: ecosystem interactions. Env. Res. Sec A82:97-105.

Smayda, T.J. 1992. A phantom of the ocean. Nature 358:374-375.

Springer, J.J., J.M. Burkholder and S.E. Shumway. 1996. Effects of the toxic
dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, on juvenile bay scallops (Agropecten
irradians, Lamark). 88th Annual Meeting of the National Shellfisheries
Association, Baltimore, MD, 14-18th April 1996. J. Shellfish Res. 15:530.
Summary only.

Steidinger, K.A., J.M. Burkholder, H.B. Glasgow Jr., E.W. Truby, J.K. Garrett, E.J. Noga and S.A. Smith. 1996. Pfiesteria piscicida gen et sp. Nov. (Pfiesteriaceae, fam.
nov.), a new toxic dinoflagellate with a complex life cycle and behavior. J.
Phycol. 32:157-164.

Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, E.W. Truby, and B.A. Blakesley. 1996. The use of scanning electron microscopy in identifying small “gymnodinioid” dinoflagellates. Nova Hedwiga 112:415-422.

Steidinger, K.A., E.W. Truby, J.K. Garrett, and J.M. Burkholder. 1995. The morphology
and cytology of a newly discovered toxic dinoflagellate. In: Lassus, P. G. Arzul,
E. Erard, P. Gentien, and C. Marcaillou (eds.). Harmful marine algal blooms.
Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 83-87.

Stoecker, D.K., K. Stevens and D.E. Gustafson, Jr. 2000. Grazing on Pfiesteria piscicida by microzooplankton. Aq. Microbiol Ecol. 22:261-270.

Stoecker, D.K., M.W. Parrow, J.M. Burkholder and H.B. Glasgow. 2002. Grazing by
microzooplankton of Pfiesteria piscicida cultures with different histories of toxicity. Aq. Microbial Ecol. 28:79-85.

Stevenson, J. 1998. Pfiesteria and learning problems. Jama. J. Am. Med. Assoc.

Stow, C.A. 1999. Assessing the relationship between Pfiesteria and estuarine fish kills.
Ecosystems 2(3):237-241.

Toffer, K.L., E.F. Schaefer, H.B. Glasgow, J.M. Burkholder and P. Rublee. 1998.
Ribosomal DNA from the toxic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida. Eight international conference on Harmful Algae Proceedings. 278-279.

Turf, E., L. Ingsrisawang, M. Turf, J.D. Ball, M. Stutts, J. Taylor and S. Jenkins. 1999. A cohort study to determine the epidemiology of Estuary Associated Syndrome. Va. J. Sci. 50(4):299-310.

Vogelbein, W. K., J.D. Shields, L.W. Haas, K.S. Reece and D.E. Zwerner. 2001. Skin
ulcers in estuarine fishes: a comparative pathological evaluation of wild and laboratory exposed fish. Env. Health. Persp. 109(suppl 5):687-694.

Weber, E.P. and H.G. Marshall. 1999. Water quality relationships to concentrations of Pfiesteria-like organisms in Virginia estuaries for 1998. Va. J. Sci. 50(4):365-380.

Wiant, C.J. 1998. Pfiesteria to our waterways - is this the example we have been waiting
for? J. Environ. Health. 60(6):28-29.
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