The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission and State of Maryland manage coastal shark fisheries in state waters (out to three miles) while the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration manages shark fisheries in federal waters (3-200 miles offshore). the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration implemented the Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fisheries Management Plan which includes sharks of the Atlantic Ocean to help replenish and protect shark species.
Subsequently, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission adopted an Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks. The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission Fisheries Management Plan manages forty species of sharks with a goal of being as consistent as possible with the federal Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fisheries Management Plan (NOAA 2006). Additionally, spiny dogfish are also managed at the State and federal level under separate management plans. The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas has prioritized the biological study and assessment of the major sharks of the epipelagic system as these species are more susceptible to being caught as by-catch by oceanic fleets targeting tuna and tuna-like species. Among these shark species there are some of special prevalence and with an extensive geographical distribution within the oceanic-epipelagic ecosystem, such as the blue shark and shortfin mako shark,
and others with less or even limited prevalence, such as portbeagle, hammerhead
sharks, thresher sharks, and white sharks.
State shark regulations are available in the Annotated Code of Maryland (COMAR). Some municipalities also have relevant ordinances. Federal shark permit and regulatory information are available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in compliance guides.
There are twenty shark species that recreational and commercial fishermen are prohibited to target or keep. These include:
*Legal commercial species
More information about sharks and other highly migratory species is available in the Maryland Guide to Fishing and Crabbing.
Most of the commercial shark fishery landings are comprised of smooth dogfish caught using gillnets.
Fishing for sharks occurs off the beaches and from boats fishing in the Atlantic Ocean and Coastal Bays. Most of the sharks are released. Maximum survivability is
heavily stressed and steps can be taken to ensure anglers are being careful with the sharks they catch. Practicing safe dehooking procedures and minimizing fight time with the appropriate equipment will ensure that the animal is released back into the water safely.
There are steps that anglers can take to increase survival from the hook up to the moment it's released. Helpful actions that increase the likelihood of survival include:
Visit the Shark Release Recommendations page or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Apex Predator website for more details on these recommendations.
Report your live releases of mako sharks using the Mako Release Smartphone App.
In Maryland, recreational anglers are required to report all landed sharks, with the exception of spiny dogfish, to the State via the Catch Card and Tagging Program.
Coastal: smooth dogfish, spiny dogfish, sandbar, dusky, Atlantic sharpnose, scalloped hammerhead, and sand tiger sharks.
Pelagic: shortfin mako, common thresher, and blue sharks.
Shark bites are rare events especially in Maryland waters. When
swimming in the ocean, Coastal Bays, or even Chesapeake Bay, folks should keep
in mind that they are entering the habitat of sharks. Here are some tips:
For more information on reducing risk please visit the Florida Museum of Natural History website.
Advice to Swimmers. (n.d.). Retrieved December 07, 2016, from https://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/isaf/reducing-risk/advice-swimmers/
Atlantic HMS Fishery Compliance Guides: Office of Sustainable Fisheries. (n.d.). Retrieved December 07, 2016, from http://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/sfa/hms/compliance/guides/index.html
Atlantic HMS Fishery Management Plans and Amendments: Office of Sustainable Fisheries. (n.d.). Retrieved December 07, 2016, from http://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/sfa/hms/documents/fmp/index.html
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