Northern Hardwoods Forest Association
[A typical Northern Hardwoods Forest.] The northern hardwoods forest association is found primarily in the western provinces of the State. It occurs on a variety of soil and moisture conditions.

Characteristic tree species include:
sugar maple, red maple, American beech, and yellow birch.

Associated tree species include:
sweet birch, black cherry, white ash, yellow-poplar, basswood, cucumber tree, aspen, eastern hemlock, pin cherry, and striped maple.

Understory plants include:
striped maple, witch hobble, eastern hophornbeam, witch-hazel, viburnum, and American beech root suckers.

Herbaceous plants include:
hay-scented fern, bracken, short husk grass, lady's slipper, hepatica, trillium, club-moss, violet, aster, and wood sorrel.

The proportion of species able to tolerate shady conditions may increase over several centuries in the northern hardwoods association. Otherwise, this community generally does not change unless the overstory is completely removed. Complete removal by fire, hurricane, or treatments like clearcutting provides enough light for tree species intolerant of shade to become established.

Forest Health Report Contents


This information provided by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources Forest Service

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