Northern Hardwoods Forest Association
The northern hardwoods forest association is found primarily in the western provinces of the State. It occurs on a variety of soil and moisture conditions.
Characteristic tree species include:
Associated tree species include:
Understory plants include:
Herbaceous plants include:
The proportion of species able to tolerate shady conditions may increase over several centuries in the northern hardwoods association. Otherwise, this community generally does not change unless the overstory is completely removed. Complete removal by fire, hurricane, or treatments like clearcutting provides enough light for tree species intolerant of shade to become established.