White Pine/Northern Hardwoods
Forest Association

[A typical White Pine/Northern Hardwoods Forest.] The white pine/northern hardwoods forest association can be found throughout central and western Maryland. Generally, it is not found on the Coastal Plain. The understory in this forest association is sparse.

Characteristic tree species include:
white pine, sugar maple, red maple, American beech, and yellow birch.

Associated tree species include:
sweet birch, gray birch, black cherry, white ash, yellow-poplar, basswood, cucumber tree, aspen, eastern hemlock, pin cherry, striped maple, white oak, northern red oak, balsam fir, white spruce, northern white-cedar, hickory, shortleaf pine, and pitch pine.

Understory plants on the Allegheny Plateau and Mountains include:
striped maple, American beech, rhododendron, viburnum, witch-hazel, eastern hophornbeam, witch hobble, and winterberry.

Understory plants in the Appalachian Mountains include:
blueberry, huckleberry, azalea, teaberry, mountain-laurel, blackberry, green brier, and Virginia creeper.

Natural or planned disturbances that create openings in the canopy larger than about one-half acre will maintain this forest association. If openings are not created, white pine/northern hardwoods will gradually convert to northern hardwoods, oak-hickory, or oak/northern hardwoods.

Forest Health Report Contents

This information provided by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources Forest Service

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