Forest Harvest Operations -- Best Management Practices Used In Study
Best Management Practices Used In Study

TRUCK HAUL ROADS - Three truck roads, totaling 3,630 linear feet (.68 mile).
  • Slope typically less than 10%, up to maximum of 15%.
  • Cut and/or fill slopes typically less than 3 ft.
  • Surfacing with crushed stone at public road entrances (3), areas greater than 10% slope (4), wet areas (9), and approaches to stream crossings (2).
  • Drainage using crowning and ditching, culverts, broad-based dips, rolling dips, and grade breaks.
  • Post-harvest stabilization with seed and mulch where greater than 10% slope.

SKID TRAILS - Twelve major skid trails through 7 cutting blocks, with a total of 16,500 linear feet (3.1 miles).

  • Slope typically less than 15%, up to 20% for short distances. One 300 ft. section 20-25% slope received special attention.
  • Cut and/or fill slopes typically 3 ft. or less. One 75 ft. section, up to 5 ft. height, received special attention.
  • Location made using best use of site topography.
  • Drainage using out-sloping, broad-based dips, rolling dips, and grade breaks.
  • Post-harvest drainage by re-grading, and waterbars at slope-based intervals.
  • Post-harvest stabilization with seed and mulch where greater than 10% slope.

LANDINGS - Four landings, totaling 1.4 acres.

  • Slope typically less than 10%. One landing partially at 10-12% slope received special attention.
  • Located outside wetlands and streamside buffer zones, though one landing was adjacent to these.
  • Located out of sight of public roads where possible.
  • Cut and/or fill slopes 5 ft. or less.
  • Debris from clearing (rocks, trees, stumps, brush) wind-rowed on down-slope side.
  • Post-harvest drainage by re-grading.
  • Post-harvest stabilization with seed and mulch of areas over 10% slope.

STREAMSIDE FOREST BUFFERS - A total of 1485 linear feet of buffer, all within one cutting block.

  • Buffer width of 75 - 150 ft., varying with slope.
  • Selected trees within buffer were cut, targeting retention of 60 sq. ft. of basal area.
  • No truck roads or skid trails within buffer, except for access to stream crossings.
  • No logging equipment within 50 ft. of stream. Any trees to be cut within 50 ft. removed by cable.
  • Post-harvest stabilization of any exposed soil with seed and mulch.

WETLANDS - Three wetland areas, totaling 2.25 acres, were within harvest blocks. Several others were adjacent to cutting blocks or truck roads.

  • Use of geotextile and crushed stone to stabilize truck haul road and skid trail.
  • Exclusion of logging equipment from wetland areas. Trees cut were removed by cable.
  • No channelization of flow into or out of wetland areas.

STREAM CROSSINGS - Two crossings were used.

  • Minimized number of crossing locations.
  • Portable 20 ft. timber bridge, temporary.
  • 24 inch metal pipe culvert, sized for drainage area, permanent.
  • Drainage of roadbed on approach to crossing.
  • Surface of approaches stabilized with geotextile and crushed stone.
  • Post-harvest removal of temporary bridge and stabilization with seed and mulch.

see Appendix for the Standard Erosion and Sediment Control Plan for Forest Harvest Operations in Maryland

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This study was funded through a Clean Water Act Section 319(h) Grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Maryland Department of Natural Resources
Forest Service and Chesapeake & Coastal Watershed Service
Annapolis, Maryland / April 2000 / FWHS-FS-00-01

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