Resources for Green Infrastructure Planning

Existing Projects | Conservation Biology & Landscape Ecology Journals |
Professional Associations | GIS Data and Tools

Conservation Biology and Landscape Ecology Theory

Anderson, G. S., and B. J. Danielson. 1997. "The effects of landscape composition and physiognomy on metapopulation size: the role of corridors." Landscape ecology 12:261-271.

Beier, P., and R. F. Noss. 1998. "Do habitat corridors provide connectivity?" Conservation Biology 12(6):1241-1252.

Bennett, A. F.  1998.  Linkages in the landscape: the role of corridors and sensitivity in wildlife conservation.  IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.  254 pp.

Brown, M. T., J. M. Schaefer, and K. H. Brandt. 1990. Buffer zones for water, wetlands and wildlife in East Central Florida. Prepared for the East Central Florida Regional Planning Council, Winter Park, FL. Gainesville, FL: Center for Wetlands, Univ. of FL. 71 pp.

Burgess, R. L., and D. M. Sharpe (eds.). 1981. Forest island dynamics in man-dominated landscapes. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.

Bushman, E. S., and G. D. Therres. 1988. Habitat management guidelines for forest interior breeding birds of coastal Maryland. Wildlife Tech. Pub. 88-1, Maryland Dept. of Nat. Res., Annapolis, MD. 50 pp.

Caughley, G., and A. Gunn. 1996. Conservation biology in theory and practice. Blackwell Science, Oxford, England. 459 pp.

Cox, G. W. 1997. Conservation Biology: concepts and applications. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA. 362 pp.

Dramstad, W. E., Olson, J. D., and Forman, R. T. T. 1996. Landscape ecology principles in landscape architecture and land-use planning. Island Press, Washington, DC. 80 pp.

Forman, R. T. T. 1995. Land mosaics: the ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. 632 pp.

Forman, R. T. T., and M. Godron. 1986. Landscape Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. 619 pp.

Gucinski, H., M. Furniss, R. Ziemer, and M. Brookes. 2001. Forest Roads: A synthesis of scientific information. Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station.  General Technical Report PNW-GTR-509. USDA Forest Service, Portland, Oregon.

Gustafson, E. J. 1998. "Quantifying landscape spatial pattern: what is the state of the art?" Ecosystems 1:143-156. Email:

Hansen, A. J. & F. di Castri (eds.). 1992. Landscape Boundaries: Consequences for Biotic Diversity and Ecological Flows. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Hanski, I., and M. Gilpin.  1991. “Metapopulation dynamics: brief history and conceptual domain”. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 42:3-16.

Hansson, L., L. Fahrig, & G. Merriam (eds.). 1995. Mosaic Landscapes and Ecological Processes. Chapman & Hall, London.

Harris, L. D. 1984. The Fragmented Forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. 211 pp.

Harris, L. D. 1988. “Landscape linkages: the dispersal corridor approach to wildlife conservation”. Trans. 53rd N. A. Wildl. & Nat. Res. Conf. pp.595-607.

Hudson, W. (ed.) 1991. Landscape Linkages and Biodiversity. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 222 pp.

Klopatek, J. M. & R. H. Gardner (eds.). 1999. Landscape Ecological Analysis: Issues and Applications. Springer, New York.

McCullough, D. R. (ed.) 1996. Metapopulations and Wildlife Conservation. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 439 pp.

Mech, S., and J. Hallet. 2001. “Evaluating the effectiveness of corridors”. Conservation Biology 15(2):467

Morris, W., D. Doak, M. Groom, P. Kareiva, J. Fieberg, L. Gerber, P. Murphy, and D. Thomson. 1999. A practical handbook for population viability analysis. The Nature Conservancy. 80 pp.

Natural Lands Trust. 2000. Conservation design in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Natural Lands Trust, Media, PA. 21 pp.

Naveh, Z. & A. S. Liebermann. 1984. Landscape Ecology: Theory and Application. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Noss, R. F. 1992. "The Wildlands Project: land conservation strategy." Wild Earth (Special Issue):10-25.

Palik, B. J., P. C. Goebel, L. K. Kirkman, and L. West. "Using landscape hierarchies to guide restoration of disturbed ecosystems." In press, Ecological Applications. Contact Brian Palik at Forestry Sciences Lab, USDA Forest Service, 1831 Highway 169E, Grand Rapids, MN 55744.

Peterson, D. L. & V. T. Parker (eds.). 1998. Ecological Scale: Theory and Applications. Columbia University Press, New York.

Pickett, S. T. A., and P. S. White (eds.) 1985. The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, FL.

Pressey, R. L., I. R. Johnson, and P. D. Wilson. 1994. "Shades of irreplaceability: towards a measure of the contribution of sites to a reservation goal." Biodiversity and Conservation 3:242-262.

Pressey, R. L., S. Ferrier, T. C. Hager, C. A. Woods, S. L. Tully, and K. M. Weinman. 1996. "How well protected are the forests of north-eastern New South Wales? - Analyses of forest environments in relation to formal protection measures, land tenure, and vulnerability to clearing." Forest Ecology and Management 85:311-333.

Pulliam, H. R. 1988. "Sources, sinks, and population regulation." Am. Nat. 132:652-661.

Sanderson, J. & L. D. Harris (eds.). Landscape Ecology: A Top Down Approach. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Soulé, M., and R. Noss. 1998. Rewilding and biodiversity: complementary goals for continental conservation. [Online]. Available at:

Soulé, M. E., and J. Terborgh, editors. 1999. Continental conservation: scientific foundations of regional reserve networks. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 238 pp.

Szacki, J. 1999. “Spatially structured populations: how much do they match the classic metapopulation concept?” Landscape Ecology 14:369-379.

Tewksbury, J, Levey, D, Haddad, N, Sargent, S, Orrock, J L., Weldon, A, Danielson, B, Brinkerhoff, J, Damschen, E, Townsend, P. 2002. Corridors affect plants, animals, and their interactions in fragemented landscapes. PNAS. 99(20)12923-12926

Tilman, D., and P. Kareiva (eds.) Spatial ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Turner, M. G. (ed.). 1987. Landscape Heterogeneity and Disturbance. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Turner, M. G. & R. H. Gardner (eds.). 1991. Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology: The Analysis and Interpretation of Landscape Heterogeneity. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Turner, M. G., R. H. Gardner & R. V. O'Neill. 2001. Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Wells, J. V., and M. E. Richmond. 1995. "Populations, metapopulations, and species populations: what are they and who should care?" Wildl. Soc. Bull. 23:458-462.

Wiens, J. A. 1976. "Population responses to patchy environments." Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 7:81-120.

Zonneveld, I. S. & R. T. T. Forman (eds.). 1990. Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Existing Projects

The Florida statewide greenways system planning project
Contact Tom Hoctor at: or write:
Florida Greenways Project
Department of Landscape Architecture
P.O. Box 115704
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

The five year implementation plan for the Florida greenways and trails system
Contact Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Office of Greenways and Trails
2600 Blair Stone Road
MS 795
Tallahassee, FL 32399-2400

Baltimore County Department of Environmental Protection and Resource Management. 1996.
A GIS-based methodology of establishing a greenway corridor sysem in a fragmented forest landscape.
Baltimore County Department of Environmental Protection and Resource Management, Towson, MD.

Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion conservation plan
Contact Reed Noss at:

The Nature Conservancy ecoregional plans
Contact Doug Samson at:

The Natural Heritage Network

Oregon Biodiversity Project
Hardcopy atlas and report: Oregon's Living Landscape: Strategies and Opportunities to Conserve Biodiversity.
CD-ROM atlas and report: Oregon's Living Landscape: An Interactive Introduction to Oregon's Biodiversity.
Contact Sara Vickerman, Defenders of Wildlife, at:

Brazilian Rainforest Corridors project
Contact G.A.B. Fonseca at:

McLarney, W.O.(ed.) Protection of aquatic biodiversity in the southern Appalachian national forests and their watersheds: a rapid assessment.(Online) Available at: download.htm

Sorrell, J. 1997. Using geographic information systems to evaluate forest fragmentation and identify wildlife corridor opportunities in the Cataraqui watershed.

Conservation Biology and Landscape Ecology Journals

Conservation Ecology

Conservation Biology
Blackwell Science, Inc.
Commerce Place
350 Main Street
Malden, MA 02148-5018
Phone: (781) 388-8250
Fax: (781) 388-8255
Toll Free: 1-888-661-5800

Landscape Ecology
Kluwer Academic Publishers
Sales Department
P.O. Box 17
3300 AA Dordrecht
The Netherlands
Phone: (+31) 78 639 22 25
Fax: (+31) 78 639 23 00

Professional Associations

The International Association for Landscape Ecology (IALE)

The United States Regional Association of
the International Association for Landscape Ecology (US-IALE)

The Ecological Society of America (ESA)

The Society for Conservation Biology (SCB)

GIS Data and Tools

GIS mapping tools for the conservation community


National Gap Analysis Program Home Page

Maryland's Technology Toolbox (statewide GIS data)
Contact: Kenneth M. Miller
Watershed Information Services Center
Department of Natural Resources
Tawes State Office Building E-2
580 Taylor Avenue
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone: (410) 260-8751
Fax: (410) 260-8759

USGS Geospatial Data Clearinghouse

MRLC home page

U.S. State and Local GIS Data Resources

National Wetlands Inventory

ESRI home page

last updated December 27, 2005