Frogs and toads are amphibians that do not typically have a tail as adults. The hind legs are longer than the front legs and are modified for jumping. The body is relatively short and the head is not separated from the body by a discernable neck. The larval or tadpole stage of most frogs and toads is entirely aquatic. Tadpoles possess a tail and do not have legs until late in development, just prior to metamorphosis to the adult form. Frog and toad tadpoles with legs can be distinguished from
aquatic salamander larvae by the lack of a discernable neck, the
presence of distinctly longer back limbs compared to the front limbs,
and the absence of external gills, as are seen in salamander larvae.
Photo of adult Eastern America Toad, courtesy of Scott A. Smith
Eastern American Toad
Anaxyrus americanus americanus
Fowler’s ToadAnaxyrus fowleri
Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad
Eastern Spadefoot Toad
State listed as Watchlist, indicating rare to uncommon.If you find any please contact DNR’s Wildlife and Heritage Service.
Northern Green Frog
Northern Leopard Frog
Southern Leopard Frog, photo courtesy of Scott A. Smith
Adult Wood Frog, photo courtesy of John White
Adult Barking Treefrog, photo courtesy of Scott A. Smith
Calling Barking Treefrog, photo courtesy of Scott A. Smith
This is a state endangered species, which was first discovered in Maryland in 1982. Currently known only from Caroline, Kent and Queen Anne’s counties. If you find any please contact DNR’s Wildlife and Heritage Service.
Adult Gray Treefrog, photo courtesy of John White
Gray Tree Frog
Adult Cope's Gray Treefrog, photo courtesy of Corey Wickliffe
Cope's Gray Treefrog
Adult Green Treefrog, photo courtesy of John White
State listed as Endangered.If you find any, please contact DNR's Wildlife and Heritage Service.
Adult New Jersey Chorus Frog, photo courtesy of Rebecca Chalmers
Adult New Jersey Chorus Frog, photo courtesy of John White
A number of documents were used to compile the species descriptions. Two
documents provided the most information: Amphibians and Reptiles of
Pennsylvania by Arthur C. Hulse, C. J. McCoy, and Ellen Censky
(2001), which includes a key to tadpoles using features other than
mouthparts. Amphibians and Reptiles of Delmarva by James F. and
Amy Wendt White (2002), which provides descriptions of many features of
tadpoles from Delmarva that can be used to distinguish species. These
books are recommended to anyone seeking more comprehensive information
on Maryland anuran ecology and identification.
In addition to physical descriptions of the anurans found in Maryland, maps
depicting the distribution of each species in Maryland are also
included. The distribution maps include historical distribution
information that was compiled by Harris (1975). White and White (2002)
also provided a great deal of the historical and recent distributional
information for frogs and toads on Maryland’s eastern shore. Additional
recent distribution information was provided by the Maryland Department
of Natural Resources, Maryland Biological Stream Survey and Natural
Heritage Program, and from additional literature where appropriate.
Photo of Upland Chorus Frog, courtesy of John White
580 Taylor Ave, Annapolis MD 21401