Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance includes both successional forests, following cropping or site conversion, and natural forests in the Piedmont, Cumberlands and Ridge and Valley, and Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. Other canopy and subcanopy species that may be present in successional stands are Liriodendron tulipifera, Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, Pinus virginiana, Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana, Quercus stellata, Quercus velutina, Ulmus rubra, Quercus alba, Nyssa sylvatica, Ulmus alata, Cornus florida, Prunus serotina var. serotina, and Carya spp. Vaccinium spp., especially Vaccinium stamineum, are common in these forests. One association in this alliance occurs on barrier islands in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Along with the dominant Pinus taeda, canopy associates often include Quercus falcata, Acer rubrum, Prunus serotina var. serotina, and Sassafras albidum. The tall-shrub layer is comprised of Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera) and Vaccinium formosum. Vines and lianas are always present in abundance; Vitis rotundifolia is most commonly present, but Toxicodendron radicans, Smilax rotundifolia, Smilax glauca, and Parthenocissus quinquefolia are usually present in abundance as well. The herbaceous layer may be sparse, particularly if shrubs and vines are dense, but Chasmanthium laxum may be fairly abundant in this community. Other herbs include Panicum amarum var. amarulum, Eupatorium hyssopifolium, and Elephantopus nudatus. In southern Virginia and North Carolina, Quercus virginiana and Gelsemium sempervirens may also be present, but Quercus virginiana is never abundant and when present is usually restricted to the understory. Pinus taeda may occur rarely in the Ouachita Mountains and Ozarks of Arkansas where the species is becoming naturalized, expanding from its native range in the Coastal Plain, where it naturally occurs in low, moist areas (e.g., deep, well-drained soils of floodplains). However, a natural Pinus taeda forest association is not recognized for the Ozark or Ouachita region.
Comments: On the Bankhead National Forest in the Cumberland Plateau of northern Alabama, this alliance includes streamside terraces that are presumed to have been previously farmed. Associations occurring as plantations are classed in Pinus taeda Planted Forest Alliance (A.99).
Range: This alliance is found in the Cumberland Plateau, Piedmont and Coastal Plains of the southeastern United States, from Delaware and Maryland south and west to Texas, and in the interior to Tennessee and possibly West Virginia.
States/Provinces: AL AR DE FL GA LA MD MS NC OK SC TN TX VA
TNC Ecoregions: 31:P, 39:C, 40:C, 41:C, 42:P, 43:C, 44:C, 50:C, 52:C, 53:C, 55:?, 56:C, 57:C, 58:C, 59:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221D:CC, 221Jb:CCC, 222Cb:CCC, 222Dc:CCC, 222Dd:CCC, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ec:CCC, 222Eg:CCC, 231Aa:CCC, 231Ab:CCC, 231Ac:CCC, 231Ad:CCC, 231Ae:CCC, 231Af:CCC, 231Ag:CCC, 231Ah:CCC, 231Ai:CCC, 231Aj:CCC, 231Ak:CCC, 231Al:CCC, 231Am:CCC, 231An:CCC, 231Ao:CCP, 231Ba:CCC, 231Bb:CCP, 231Bc:CCP, 231Bd:CCC, 231Be:CCP, 231Bf:CCP, 231Bg:CCP, 231Bh:CCP, 231Bi:CCP, 231Bj:CCP, 231Bk:CCP, 231Bl:CC?, 231Ca:CCP, 231Cb:CCP, 231Cc:CCP, 231Cd:CCC, 231Ce:CCC, 231Cf:CCC, 231Cg:CCP, 231Da:CCP, 231Dc:CCC, 231De:CC?, 231Ea:CCC, 231Eb:CC?, 231Ec:CC?, 231Ed:CC?, 231Ef:CC?, 231Eg:CCP, 231Eh:CCC, 231Ei:CC?, 231Ej:CC?, 231Ek:CCP, 231En:CC?, 231Fa:CPP, 231Fb:CP?, 232Ac:CCC, 232Ba:CCC, 232Bb:CC?, 232Bc:CC?, 232Bd:CC?, 232Be:CC?, 232Bg:CCC, 232Bh:CC?, 232Bi:CC?, 232Bj:CCC, 232Bk:CC?, 232Bl:CC?, 232Bm:CCC, 232Bn:CC?, 232Bo:CC?, 232Bp:CC?, 232Bq:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CC?, 232Bu:CC?, 232Bv:CC?, 232Bx:CC?, 232Bz:CCC, 232Ca:CCC, 232Cb:CCC, 232Cc:CC?, 232Ce:CCC, 232Cf:CC?, 232Cg:CC?, 232Ci:CC?, 232Da:CC?, 232Dc:CCC, 232Fa:CC?, 232Fb:CC?, 232Fe:CCC, 255Da:PPP, M221D:??
Federal Lands: DOD (Arnold, Fort Benning, Fort Gordon); NPS (Assateague Island, Cape Hatteras, Chickamauga-Chattanooga, Cowpens, Guilford Courthouse, Kennesaw Mountain, Kings Mountain, Ninety Six, Shiloh?); TVA (Tellico); USFS (Angelina, Apalachicola, Bankhead, Bienville, Chattahoochee, Conecuh, Croatan, Davy Crockett, De Soto, Francis Marion, Holly Springs, Homochitto, Kisatchie, Land Between the Lakes, Oconee, Ouachita, Sabine NF, Sam Houston, Sumter, Talladega, Tombigbee, Tuskegee, Uwharrie); USFWS (Chincoteague)
Synonymy: Lowland Pine - Oak Forest (Foti 1994b); Upland Mixed Forest (FNAI 1992a); Upland Mixed Forest, Gumbo Loblolly Forest subtype (FNAI 1992b); T1A9bII2a. Pinus taeda (Foti et al. 1994); Loblolly Pine: 81, in part (Eyre 1980)
References: Cain and Shelton 1994, Eyre 1980, FNAI 1992a, FNAI 1992b, Felix et al. 1983, Foti 1994b, Foti et al. 1994, Martin and Smith 1991, Martin and Smith 1993
Authors: D.J. ALLARD, RW, Southeast Identifier: A.130
PINUS TAEDA / LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA - ACER RUBRUM VAR. RUBRUM / VACCINIUM STAMINEUM FOREST
Loblolly Pine / Sweetgum - Red Maple / Deerberry Forest
Successional Loblolly Pine Forest
Ecological Group: Semi-natural Wooded Uplands (900-40; 18.104.22.168)
Concept: This successional forest of the Piedmont and Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain is dominated by Pinus taeda over a subcanopy of hardwoods with Acer rubrum var. rubrum and Liquidambar styraciflua dominant in this stratum. The forest develops following site preparation, with or without site conversion, and also following agriculture. It ranges from the Piedmont of Virginia, through North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama, extending into the adjacent eastern end of the Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain (e.g., Talladega National Forest). Variability exists in species composition and density of subcanopy hardwoods across the geographic range. Stands typically have more-or-less closed canopies, understories dominated by fire-intolerant hardwoods, and shrub-dominated lower strata.
Environment: This forest follows agricultural cropping or silvicultural site preparation on a variety of sites, and presumably is more likely on moderately dissected topography where fire is a rare occurrence. This community usually is not present on steep slopes and does not occur on wet soils. It occurs on well- to moderately well-drained soils, usually Ultisols, on sites that formerly were under hardwood cover or subjected to agriculture.
Vegetation: The tree canopy of Pinus taeda is at least 60%. Tree subcanopy density varies with stand history of burning and herbicide application, but generally is <50%. Shrub and herb layer coverages do not exceed 25% and decrease with increasing age of the stand. Other species of pine, especially Pinus echinata and Pinus virginiana may be sparingly present in the canopy. Other species that may be present in the subcanopy include Quercus coccinea, Quercus velutina, Quercus alba, Nyssa sylvatica, Carya glabra, Carya alba, Diospyros virginiana, Prunus serotina, Cornus florida, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Sassafras albidum (NatureServe Ecology unpubl. data). Other species that may be present in the shrub stratum include Juniperus virginiana, Vaccinium arboreum, Rhus copallinum, Gaylussacia baccata, Callicarpa americana, and probably others. The herbaceous layer usually forms <5% cover and contains such species as Gelsemium sempervirens, Chimaphila maculata, Polystichum acrostichoides, and Potentilla canadensis. An example from Oconee National Forest has a thinned canopy and grassy herbaceous layer.
Dynamics: Stands of this forest develop following site preparation, with or without site conversion, and possibly also following agriculture. It is presumably more likely on moderately dissected topography where fire is a rare occurrence.
Range: This forest ranges from the Piedmont of Virginia, through North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama, extending into the adjacent eastern end of the Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain (e.g., Talladega National Forest).
States/Provinces: AL:S?, GA:S?, MD:S?, NC:S?, SC:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 43:C, 52:C, 58:?
USFS Ecoregions: 221D:CC, 231Aa:CCC, 231B:CC, 232:C, M221D:??
Federal Lands:NPS (Cowpens); USFS (Oconee, Sumter, Talladega, Uwharrie?)
Synonymy: IF3b. Plantation (Hardwood or Conifer) (Allard 1990) B. in part, Loblolly Pine: 81 (Eyre 1980) B. Loblolly Pine - Hardwood: 82 (Eyre 1980) B. Loblolly Pine (21) (USFS 1988)
References: Allard 1990, NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern U.S. unpubl. data
Authors: R. Roecker, mod. S. Landaal Confidence: 3 Identifier:CEGL006011
PINUS TAEDA / MORELLA CERIFERA / VITIS ROTUNDIFOLIA FOREST
Loblolly Pine / Wax-myrtle / Muscadine Forest
Mid-Atlantic Coastal Loblolly Pine Forest G3 (99-11-30)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Southeastern Coastal Plain Maritime Stable Dune Forests and Woodlands
Concept: This mid-Atlantic coastal upland loblolly pine forest occurs on the Outer Coastal Plain and on barrier islands in sheltered backdunes protected from salt spray and overwash. The substrate is rapidly drained, nutrient-poor sands or sandy loams. This community is dominated by Pinus taeda, which can be the sole canopy component or can be associated with Quercus falcata, Acer rubrum, Prunus serotina var. serotina, and Sassafras albidum. The tall-shrub layer is comprised of Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera) and Vaccinium corymbosum. Vines and lianas are always present in abundance; Vitis rotundifolia is most common, but Toxicodendron radicans, Smilax rotundifolia, Smilax glauca, and Parthenocissus quinquefolia are usually present in abundance as well. The herbaceous layer may be sparse, particularly if shrubs and vines are dense, but Chasmanthium laxum may be fairly abundant in this community. Other herbs include Panicum amarum var. amarulum, Eupatorium hyssopifolium, and Elephantopus nudatus. In southern Virginia and North Carolina, Quercus virginiana and Gelsemium sempervirens may also be present, but Quercus virginiana is never abundant and when present is usually restricted to the understory.
Comments: This community has floristic affinity with communities of the Quercus virginiana - (Sabal palmetto) Forest Alliance (A.55) but is differentiated by a strong dominance by Pinus taeda and lack of species of southern maritime forests such as Sabal minor and Osmanthus americanus. This community also shares a number of species in common with Prunus serotina / Morella cerifera / Smilax rotundifolia Shrubland (CEGL006319) but is differentiated by a strong dominance by Pinus taeda, a structure characterized by generally taller and straighter trees, a better developed herbaceous layer, and in general, a more protected position in backdunes.
Range: This association occurs along the mid-Atlantic coast from Delaware to North Carolina.
States/Provinces: DE:S2, MD:S?, NC:S1, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 57:C, 58:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Ac:CCC, 232Bx:CC?, 232Bz:CCC
Federal Lands: NPS (Assateague Island, Cape Hatteras); USFWS (Chincoteague)
Synonymy:Pinus taeda / Myrica cerifera / Vitis rotundifolia Forest: Pinus taeda / Myrica coastal forest association (Clancy 1993a) =, Mature loblolly pine forest of dry sites (Bratton and Davison 1987) =. at Cape Hatteras., Pinus taeda community (Harvill 1967) =, Pine woodland (Stalter 1990) F. Virginia portion Assateague Island., Pine-deciduous hardwood woodland (Stalter 1990) F. Virginia portion Assateague Island., Upland forest (Klotz 1986) B. Virginia., Mature loblolly pine stand (Fleming 1978) =. at Angola Neck, Delaware., Woodland community (Hill 1986) B. Assateague Island., Mesic forest (Clampitt 1991) B. at Virginia Beach., Maritime forest (Clampitt 1991) B. at Virginia Beach., Pinus taeda / Myrica spp. coastal forest association (Clancy 1993b)
References: Bratton and Davison 1987, Clampitt 1991, Clancy 1993a, Clancy 1993b, Fleming 1978, Fleming 1998, Fleming et al. 2001, Harvill 1967, Higgins et al. 1971, Hill 1986, Klotz 1986, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Stalter 1990, Stalter and Lamont 1990
Authors: L.A. Sneddon, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006040
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.A. Evergreen forest
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