Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance is characterized by seasonally wet maritime interdunal depressions, commonly known as interdunal swales. It includes irregularly flooded brackish marshes dominated or codominated by Schoenoplectus pungens (= Scirpus pungens), and peaty oligohaline marshes (salt 0.5-5 ppt) dominated by Schoenoplectus pungens, sometimes with Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis as codominant. Other associated species can include Spartina patens, Juncus canadensis, Juncus scirpoides, Hydrocotyle umbellata, and Eleocharis parvula. The general aspect and species composition of this vegetation is variable, not only among occurrences, but also over the course of the growing season. This alliance occurs in the Atlantic Coastal Plain from North Carolina north to Massachusetts.
Range: This alliance occurs in the Atlantic Coastal Plain from North Carolina north to Massachusetts. It is found in North Carolina, Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Virginia.
States/Provinces: CT MA MD ME NC NH NJ NY RI VA
TNC Ecoregions: 57:C, 58:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Ab:CCC, 221Ac:CCC, 221Ad:CCC, 221Ak:CCC, 232Aa:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Ch:CCC
Synonymy: Estuarine Intertidal: Coastal Salt Pond (Swain and Kearsley 2001); Estuarine Intertidal: Coastal Salt Pond Marsh (Swain and Kearsley 2001); Estuarine Intertidal: Brackish Tidal Marsh (Swain and Kearsley 2001)
References: Higgins et al. 1971, Hill 1986, Swain and Kearsley 2001
Authors: A.S. WEAKLEY, JT, East Identifier: A.1478
SCHOENOPLECTUS PUNGENS TIDAL HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Threesquare Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation
Atlantic Coast Brackish Tidal Marsh G? (97-12-01)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Atlantic Coast Rivershore - Tidal Salt Marshes (202-70; n/a)
Concept: This association occurs on fresh to brackish, mid-tidal, sandy/gravelly rivershores along the north and mid-Atlantic coast. It occurs in low areas where there is a longer duration of flooding. Wave and ice scour can have a significant influence on the year-to-year appearance of the vegetation, which tends to be sparse. This vegetation often occurs in nearly pure stands of Schoenoplectus pungens (= Scirpus pungens) but can be intermixed with Spartina alterniflora or Spartina cynosuroides in more brackish areas. Species diversity tends to be low due to winter storm scour, but associates can include Amaranthus cannabinus, Polygonum punctatum, Cyperus bipartitus (= Cyperus rivularis), and Bidens spp. Sagittaria graminea, Sagittaria latifolia, Eleocharis palustris (= Eleocharis smallii), Gratiola virginiana, Elatine americana, Isoetes riparia, and Cyperus bipartitus can occur, but are absent in the northern part of the range. As the salinity decreases Zizania aquatica can also be an associate.
Comments: The nominal species has long been known as Scirpus americanus
Range: This association occurs along the Atlantic coast from New Hampshire to Virginia.
States/Provinces: CT:S?, MA:S1, MD:S?, NH:S1S2,S?, NJ:S1S3, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 57:C, 58:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Ad:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Ch:CCC
Synonymy: Scirpus marsh community (brackish mid-tidal marsh border) (Barrett 1989), Scirpus complex zone (Metzler and Rosza 1982), Brackish intertidal marsh complex (Breden 1989), Brackish Tidal Marsh (Rawinski 1984). formerly Southern New England and Gulf of Maine.
References: Barrett 1989, Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, Caldwell 1990, Fleming 2001, Fleming et al. 2001, Metzler and Barrett 2001, Metzler and Rosza 1982, Rawinski 1984, Swain and Kearsley 2001
Authors: S.L. Neid, ECS Confidence: 3 Identifier: CEGL004188
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation
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