Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
V. HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Concept: Tidal mudflats dominated by Nuphar lutea. This alliance includes vegetation of freshwater tidal rivers where the water depth is approximately 2-3 m or less. Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea odorata are dominant; these species quickly spread from their rhizomes and shade out other vegetation. Other species may include Potamogeton epihydrus, Peltandra virginica, Nymphoides cordata, and Zizania aquatica. In Delaware, this alliance occurs in nearly pure stands below mean low water on mudflats that are exposed at low tide and on the submerged point bars of stream meanders.
Range: This alliance is found in North Carolina, Connecticut, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia.
States/Provinces: DC DE MD ME NC NJ NY PA VA
TNC Ecoregions: 57:C, 58:C, 61:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221A:CC, 232Ac:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bx:CCC, 232Bz:CCC, 232Ch:CCC, 232Ci:CCC
Synonymy: Spatterdock: 31 (McCormick and Somes 1982); Spatterdock Community Type (Odum et al. 1984); V.C.2.a.2. Nuphar lutea Herbaceous Alliance. in part? (Sneddon et al. 1996)
References: McCormick and Somes 1982, Odum et al. 1984, Sneddon et al. 1996
Authors: ECS/SCS, JT, East Identifier: A.1708
NUPHAR LUTEA SSP. ADVENA TIDAL HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Broadleaf Pond-lily Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Atlantic Coast Rivershore - Tidal Fresh Marshes (202-75; n/a)
Concept: This association comprises submerged freshwater tidal mud flats of coastal rivers along the Atlantic coast that are dominated by Nuphar lutea ssp. advena. This association occurs at low elevations within freshwater tidal marshes, within tidal range but beyond the influence of salinity. It generally occurs below mean low water level where water depth is approximately 1-3 m or less. It receives a relatively long duration of flooding and is infrequently exposed at only the lowest tides. The association occurs on unconsolidated tidal mud flats and submerged point bars of large coastal river meanders adjacent to open water of river or tidal creek channels. Substrate is silty alluvial mud that is high in organic matter content. Vegetation of this association is characterized by large clonal stands of dense leafy forbs dominated by Nuphar lutea ssp. advena. Associated species tend to occur as scattered individuals and include Peltandra virginica, which can also be locally codominant, Pontederia cordata, Zizania aquatica, Sagittaria latifolia, Bidens laevis, Acorus calamus, and/or Schoenoplectus fluviatilis. Nuphar lutea ssp. advena forms nearly monotypic stands early in the growing season. Associated species emerge later in the season and can eventually overtop Nuphar plants, which senesce and tend to become insect-infested in late summer. Submerged aquatic species can occur in this association, including Potamogeton epihydrus, Ceratophyllum demersum, and the invasive exotic Hydrilla verticillata.
Comments: This association differs from Nuphar lutea ssp. advena - Nymphaea odorata Herbaceous Vegetation (CEGL002386) in that it is tidal rather than inland marsh.
Range: This association occurs along tidal rivers from New York to North Carolina.
States/Provinces: DC:S?, DE:S4, MD:S4, ME:S2, NC:S3, NJ:S2S3, NY:S2, PA:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 57:C, 58:C, 61:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221:C, 232Ac:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bx:CCC, 232Bz:CCC, 232C:CC
Synonymy: Tidal Freshwater Marsh (Pondlily Subtype) (Schafale 2000), Freshwater Tidal Marsh: Mud Flat Type (McCoy and Fleming 2000), Freshwater Tidal Marsh complex (Breden 1989), Nuphar advena - (Ceratophyllum demersum) Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation (Coulling 2002), Nuphar advena - Peltandra virginica Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation (Coulling 2002), FW Tidal Marsh (Rawinski 1984). formerly Southern New England FW Tidal.
References: Bowman 2000, Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, Brumback and Mehrhoff 1996, Coulling 2002, Edinger et al. 2002, Fleming 2001, Fleming et al. 2001, Gawler 2002, Good and Good 1975b, Harrison 2001, McCormick and Ashbaugh 1972, McCormick et al. 1970, McCoy and Fleming 2000, Odum et al. 1984, Peet et al. 2002, Rawinski 1984, Reschke 1990, Schafale 2000, Schafale and Weakley 1990
Authors: S.L. Neid, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL004472
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report V.B. Perennial forb vegetation
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This Page Up-dated on April 27, 2010