Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
V. HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Concept: Freshwater tidal marshes dominated by variable mixtures of Peltandra virginica and Pontederia cordata. Other species present can include Bidens spp., Zizania aquatica, Sagittaria spp., Acorus americanus, and Polygonum spp. This alliance occurs primarily in low portions of the intertidal zone, on mucky substrates.
Range: This alliance is found in Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, and Virginia, and possibly Pennsylvania (?).
States/Provinces: CT DE MA MD ME NJ NY PA? VA
TNC Ecoregions: 57:P, 58:C, 61:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Ac:CCC, 221Ad:CCC, 221Ak:CCC, 221Ba:CCC, 221D:CP, 232Ab:CCC, 232Ac:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bx:CCC, 232Ch:CCP
Synonymy: Pickerelweed/Arrowarum: 32 (McCormick and Somes 1982); Arrow-arum/Pickerelweed Community Type (Odum et al. 1984); Estuarine Intertidal: Freshwater Tidal Marsh (Swain and Kearsley 2001)
References: McCormick and Somes 1982, Odum et al. 1984, Swain and Kearsley 2001
Authors: A.S. WEAKLEY AFTER ODUM E, JT, Southeast Identifier: A.1703
HIBISCUS MOSCHEUTOS - POLYGONUM ARIFOLIUM - LEERSIA ORYZOIDES - (CAREX STRICTA) TIDAL HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Eastern Rosemallow - Halberd-leaf Tearthumb - Rice Cutgrass - (Tussock Sedge) Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation
Oligohaline Mixed Forbs Marsh G? (02-05-12)
Concept: This association is a diverse oligohaline marsh characterized by variable dominance of species found in the Chesapeake Bay. Species that form locally dominant patches can include Polygonum arifolium, Hibiscus moscheutos ssp. moscheutos, Polygonum punctatum, Peltandra virginica, Leersia oryzoides, Polygonum sagittatum, Mikania scandens, Spartina cynosuroides and Toxicodendron radicans, among others. All of these species are able to tolerate a broad range of halinity, and the high mean species richness of this type suggests that it is generally restricted to only slightly oligohaline habitats. Infrequently present are several species that are more specific to oligohaline conditions, including Echinochloa walteri, Kosteletzkya virginica, Pluchea odorata, Rumex verticillatus, Sagittaria lancifolia, and Teucrium canadense. The colonial sedge Carex stricta often forms local dominance patches, characteristically on hummocks raised 20-25 cm above the primary marsh surface.
Comments: In Virginia, occurrences are known from the Mattaponi (New and Gleason marshes), Pamunkey (Sweet Hall, Cousiac, and Cohoke marshes), and Rappahannock (Otterburn Marsh) rivers. In Maryland, an occurrence documented from the Pocomoke River (Cypress Swamp) is currently attributed to this type. In New Jersey, an occurrence is known from Rancocas Creek.
Range: Currently described from Virginia, Maryland, and New Jersey.
States/Provinces: MD:S?, NJ:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 58:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Ab:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC
Synonymy: Hibiscus moscheutos - Polygonum arifolium - Leersia oryzoides - (Carex stricta) Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation (Coulling 2002)
References: Coulling 2002, Harrison pers. comm.
Authors: S.L. Neid, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006181
IMPATIENS CAPENSIS - PELTANDRA VIRGINICA - SAGITTARIA LATIFOLIA - (TYPHA ANGUSTIFOLIA) TIDAL HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Orange Jewelweed - Green Arrow-arum - Broadleaf Arrowhead - (Narrowleaf Cattail) Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation
Freshwater Tidal Mixed Forbs High Marsh G? (97-12-01)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Atlantic and Gulf Coast Oligohaline and Fresh Tidal Marshes (202-40; n/a)
Concept: This association occurs in reliably flooded swales or backmarshes within the upper reaches of freshwater tidal marshes along tidal rivers of the Atlantic coast. Salinity is fresh to slightly brackish. These low-lying depressions are flooded for a longer duration than the surrounding habitat as they trap floodwaters as tides recede. Species composition and abundance in these small-patch wet depression are highly variable. They are best characterized by the presence and/or dominance of Peltandra virginica, Impatiens capensis, Sagittaria latifolia, and/or Typha angustifolia. Associated species commonly include Pontederia cordata, Polygonum spp. (Polygonum arifolium, Polygonum sagittatum, Polygonum hydropiperoides, Polygonum punctatum), Bidens spp. (Bidens laevis, Bidens frondosa, Bidens coronata), Schoenoplectus fluviatilis, Leersia oryzoides, Zizania aquatica, Amaranthus cannabinus, Sium suave, Apios americana, Iris versicolor, Echinochloa walteri, and others. The exotic Murdannia keisak has been noted in this community in the southern portion of the range. Species of the surrounding oligohaline or mesohaline marshes or from palustrine setting can occur in these microhabitats, but are usually not dominant. Substrate is highly variable ranging from silts, silty mucks, peats, or sands.
Comments: Species composition can differ between swales within the high marsh and those in low marsh settings.
Range: This association occurs in freshwater tidal marshes along the Atlantic coast from Maine to Virginia.
States/Provinces: CT:S?,S?, DE:S4, MA:S1, MD:S4?, ME:S2, NJ:S3, NY:S2, PA?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 58:C, 61:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Ac:CCC, 221Ad:CCC, 221Ak:CCC, 221Ba:CCC, 221D:CP, 232Ac:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bx:CCC, 232C:CP
Synonymy: Freshwater Tidal Marsh Complex, upper tidal zone (Breden 1989), Peltandra backmarsh (Barrett 1989), Impatiens capensis - Polygonum sagittatum - Zizania aquatica - (Bidens laevis, coronata) Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation (Coulling 2002), FW Tidal Marsh (Rawinski 1984). formerly Southern New England FW Tidal.
References: Barrett 1989, Barrett 1994, Bowman 2000, Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, Coulling 2002, Edinger et al. 2002, Fleming 2001, Fleming et al. 2001, Gawler 2002, Harrison 2001, Metzler and Barrett 2001, Rawinski 1984, Reschke 1990, Swain and Kearsley 2001
Authors: S.L. Neid, ECS Confidence: 3 Identifier: CEGL006325
PELTANDRA VIRGINICA - PONTEDERIA CORDATA TIDAL HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Green Arrow-arum - Pickerelweed Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Atlantic Coast Rivershore - Tidal Fresh Marshes (202-75; n/a)
Concept: These are freshwater tidal marshes dominated by variable mixtures of Peltandra virginica and Pontederia cordata that are best expressed along the north Atlantic coast southward to Virginia. It occurs at low elevations within the freshwater tidal zone, often bordering open water. Peltandra virginica and Pontederia cordata are codominant. Associated species can include Bidens spp., Zizania aquatica, Sagittaria latifolia, Acorus americanus, Polygonum arifolium, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Polygonum sagittatum. This community occurs on mucky substrates of variable depth.
Comments: This community occurs in very similar environmental settings as Nuphar lutea ssp. advena Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation (CEGL004472), low freshwater tidal marshes with a long duration of flooding. Species composition has some overlap. These two associations are best expressed where the elevation gradient is very mild, allowing the associations to occupy different zones, with this association occurring at slightly higher elevation than Nuphar lutea ssp. advena Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation. Impatiens capensis - Peltandra virginica - Sagittaria latifolia - (Typha angustifolia) Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation (CEGL006325) is a small-patch community that tends to form in ponded areas within freshwater high marsh and differs in having a much more varied species composition.
Range: Occurs from Maine to Virginia, excluding Rhode Island and New Hampshire.
States/Provinces: DE:S?, MA:S1, MD:S?, NJ:S?, NY:S2, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 58:C, 61:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Ab:CCP, 232Ac:CCP, 232Ad:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bx:CCP, 232Ch:CCP
Synonymy: Arrow-arum/Pickerelweed Community Type (Odum et al. 1984), Peltandra virginica Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation (Coulling 2002), Pontederia cordata Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation (Coulling 2002)
References: Bowman 2000, Breden et al. 2001, Coulling 2002, Edinger et al. 2002, Fleming 2001, Fleming et al. 2001, Harrison 2001, McCoy and Fleming 2000, Odum et al. 1984, Peet et al. 2002
Authors: S.L. Neid, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL004706
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report V.B. Perennial forb vegetation
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This Page Up-dated on April 27, 2010