Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance is composed of rich, mesic forests of the east-central United States and southern Canada. The southern range of this alliance is limited by the distribution of Acer saccharum which is largely absent from the Coastal Plain. The forest canopy and subcanopy are typically dominated by Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia, although Liriodendron tulipifera may be an important canopy component in some parts of the range. Other common trees include Carpinus caroliniana, Carya spp., Fraxinus americana, Ostrya virginiana, Quercus rubra, Tilia americana, and Ulmus americana. In the southern part of this alliance's range, additional species may include Quercus alba, Tilia americana, Liquidambar styraciflua, Aesculus glabra, Nyssa sylvatica, and Carya cordiformis. Shrubs are usually rare in northern stands but become more abundant in southern stands. Asimina triloba and Lindera benzoin (in the southern parts of this alliance's range), Diervilla lonicera, Euonymus obovata, and Sambucus spp. (in the northern parts), Morus rubra, and Corylus americana are typical shrubs. The herbaceous layer is well-developed. The most abundant species include Adiantum pedatum, Arisaema triphyllum, Claytonia virginica, Dicentra canadensis, Dryopteris intermedia, Galium aparine, Maianthemum canadense (in the north), Maianthemum racemosum, Menispermum canadense, Osmorhiza claytonii, Phegopteris hexagonoptera (in the south), Podophyllum peltatum, Polygonatum biflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Trillium grandiflorum, and Viola spp.
Stands of this alliance are found on flat, rolling, or, in the south, dissected topography. South of the limit of glaciation there is an increasing tendency for this alliance to be found on north- or east-facing slopes. The soils are fertile well-drained, silt, silt loam, sandy loam, or loam. Those in the north have formed over glacial till almost exclusively, while stands south of the limit of Wisconsin glaciation may form from till, alluvium, sandstone, or shale.
Range: This alliance is found in southern Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, eastern Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia, and possibly Arkansas (?), Maryland (?), and Virginia (?). It is also found in Canada in southern Ontario.
States/Provinces: AL AR? CT GA IL IN KY LA? MD MI MO MS NY OH ON PA SC TN VA WV
TNC Ecoregions: 36:C, 38:C, 42:C, 43:C, 44:C, 45:C, 48:C, 49:C, 50:C, 52:C, 57:C, 58:C, 59:C, 61:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Fa:PP?, 212Fb:PPP, 212Ga:PPP, 221Ea:CCC, 221Eb:CCC, 221Ec:CCC, 221Ed:CCC, 221Ef:CCC, 221Eg:CCC, 221Fa:CCC, 221Fb:CCC, 221Fc:CCC, 221Ha:CCP, 221Hb:CCC, 221He:CCP, 221I:CP, 221J:CC, 222Ak:CP?, 222Ao:CPP, 222Aq:CPP, 222Ca:CCP, 222Cb:CCC, 222Cc:CCC, 222Cg:CCC, 222Ch:CCP, 222Da:CCC, 222Db:CCC, 222Dc:CCC, 222De:CCC, 222Df:CCC, 222Dg:CCC, 222Dh:CCP, 222Di:CCC, 222Eb:CCC, 222Eg:CCC, 222Eh:CCC, 222Ei:CCC, 222Ek:CCC, 222El:CCC, 222Em:CCC, 222En:CCP, 222Eo:CCC, 222Fa:CCP, 222Fb:CCC, 222Fc:CCC, 222Fd:CCC, 222Fe:CCC, 222Ff:CCC, 222Ga:CCC, 222Gc:CCC, 222Gd:CCC, 222Ha:CCC, 222Hb:CCC, 222Hc:CCC, 222Hd:CCC, 222Hf:CCC, 222Ia:CC?, 222Ib:CC?, 222Ic:CC?, 222Id:CCP, 222If:CCC, 222Ja:CCC, 222Jb:CCC, 222Jc:CCC, 222Jd:CCC, 222Jg:CCC, 222Jh:CCC, 222Ji:CCC, 222Jj:CCC, 222Kj:CCC, 231Ac:CCP, 231Ae:CCC, 231Af:CCC, 231Ah:CCP, 231Ai:CCP, 231Ba:CC?, 231Bb:CC?, 231Bc:CCP, 231Bd:CCP, 231Be:CCP, 231Bf:CC?, 231Bh:CCP, 231Bk:CCP, 231Cd:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 234Ab:CCC, 234Ac:CCC, 234An:CCP, 251De:CCC, M221Aa:CC?, M221Ab:CCP, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ad:CCP, M221Ba:CCC, M221Bb:CCC, M221C:C?, M221Da:CPP
Federal Lands: NPS (Colonial, Shiloh); TVA (Tellico); USFS (Bankhead, Chattahoochee?, Cherokee?, Daniel Boone, Jefferson, Land Between the Lakes, Talladega, Tuskegee)
Synonymy: IA5d. Typic Mesophytic Forest (Allard 1990); Mixed Mesophytic Forest, in part (Foti 1994b); Deep soil mesophytic forest, in part (Evans 1991); Acidic mesophytic forest, in part (Evans 1991); Coastal Plain mesophytic cane forest. ? (Evans 1991); Sugar Maple-Beech-Tulip Poplar HR (Pyne 1994); Acer/Fagus/Liriodendron/Quercus (Pyne 1994); T1B4aI1c. Fagus grandifolia - Acer spp. (rubrum, saccharum) - Liriodendron tulipifera (Foti et al. 1994); Beech - Sugar Maple: 60, in part (Eyre 1980); Beech - Maple association (Braun 1950); Western Mesophytic Forest Region, in part (Braun 1950); Fagus grandifolia - Acer saccharum - Podophyllum peltatum association. Ohio (Pell and Mack 1977); Eastern Broadleaf Forests: 102: Beech-Maple Forest (Fagus-Acer) (Kuchler 1964); Tuliptree - beech - maple forest (Fike 1999); Dry-Mesic Acidic Central Forest (Smith 1991); Mesic Central Forest (Smith 1991)
References: Allard 1990, Andreu and Tukman 1995, Braun 1950, Cobbe 1943, Dodge and Harman 1985, Evans 1991, Eyre 1980, Faber-Langendoen et al. 1996, Fike 1999, Foti 1994b, Foti et al. 1994, Kuchler 1964, Martin 1975, Muller 1982, Pell and Mack 1977, Pyne 1994, Rogers 1981, Schmalzer 1978, Schmalzer and DeSelm 1982, Schmalzer et al. 1978, Smith 1991
Authors: D. FABER-LANGENDOEN/D.J., RW, Midwest Identifier: A.227
FAGUS GRANDIFOLIA - ACER SACCHARUM - LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA UNGLACIATED FOREST
American Beech - Sugar Maple - Tuliptree Unglaciated Forest
Beech - Maple Unglaciated Forest G4? (96-10-03)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Interior Highlands Mesic Hardwood Forests (425-05; 18.104.22.168)
Appalachian Highlands Mixed Mesophytic/Cove Forests (420-30; 22.214.171.124)
Concept: This beech - maple forest is found in unglaciated areas of the east-central United States. Stands occur on unglaciated terraces and mesic slopes of maturely dissected plateaus and submontane regions. The aspect is neutral on sandy alluvial terraces and is northern to eastern on slopes. Soils are moderately well-drained, moist, rich and deep (100+ cm). The vegetation is dominated by a closed-canopy forest with a well-developed tall-shrub layer. The forest canopy is dominated by Fagus grandifolia and Acer saccharum. Other canopy species include Liriodendron tulipifera, Liquidambar styraciflua, Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra, Carya glabra and Carya cordiformis. Shrubs commonly found in this community are Asimina triloba and Lindera benzoin. Herbaceous species are diverse, forming a dense cover. They include Adiantum pedatum, Arisaema triphyllum, Asarum canadense, Carex blanda, Dicentra canadensis, Dioscorea quaternata, Galium circaezans, Menispermum canadense, Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Polystichum acrostichoides, and Sanguinaria canadensis. The large size of dominant canopy species (over 30 m tall), herbaceous diversity, and accumulated litter emphasize the high degree of mesophytism. Community occurrences have been extensively logged, and the canopy openings favor regeneration of Acer saccharum. In the Appalachians of eastern Kentucky, other typical trees include Aesculus flava (locally abundant), Juglans cinerea, Juglans nigra, Magnolia acuminata, Quercus muehlenbergii, and Ulmus rubra.
Comments: Braun (1950, p. 141-150) describes these beech - maple forests in the Hill Section of her Western Mesophytic Forest Region. Dry-mesic forests, in which Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, and Carya ovata dominate, often have American beech and sugar maple regeneration due to an increased availability of moisture when mature oaks are removed. Where logging is heavy in these oak - hickory stands, second-growth regeneration is often dominated by sugar maple and, to a lesser extent, American beech. Classification under these circumstances can be difficult. Conversely, where sugar maple is selectively removed by logging, American beech can occur in pure stands. Forests from the southern part of Crowley's Ridge (Arkansas) are placed in Fagus grandifolia - Quercus alba - Liriodendron tulipifera / Hydrangea arborescens / Schisandra glabra Forest (CEGL004663), where Acer saccharum is not a big component and Quercus alba is more common. This type may apply to other parts of Crowley's Ridge, but more information is needed.
Range: This beech - maple forest is found in unglaciated areas of the east-central United States, ranging from southern Pennsylvania and Maryland southwest to southeastern Missouri, Kentucky and Tennessee, and possibly Arkansas. This community occupies mesic slopes of maturely dissected plateaus and submontane regions of the east-central United States. These sites were not covered by Wisconsin era glaciers.
States/Provinces: AR?, IL:S?, IN:S?, KY:S2S3,S2, MD?, MO:S?, OH:S?, PA:S?, TN:S?, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 38:C, 42:C, 43:C, 44:C, 45:C, 49:C, 50:P, 59:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Ea:CCC, 221Eb:CCC, 221Ec:CCC, 221Ed:CCC, 221Ef:CCC, 221Eg:CCC, 221Ha:CCP, 221Hb:CCC, 221He:CCP, 221I:CP, 221J:CP, 222Ak:CP?, 222Ao:CPP, 222Aq:CPP, 222Ca:CPP, 222Ch:CPP, 222Db:CCC, 222Dc:CCC, 222De:CCC, 222Df:CCC, 222Dh:CCP, 222Di:CCC, 222Ei:CCC, 222Ek:CCC, 222El:CCC, 222Em:CCC, 222En:CCP, 222Eo:CCP, 222Fa:CCP, 222Fb:CCC, 222Fc:CCC, 222Fd:CCC, 222Fe:CCC, 222Ff:CCC, 222Gc:CCC, 222Gd:CCP, 222Hc:CCC, 234Ab:CCC, 234Ac:CCC, 234An:CCP, M221Ab:CCP, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ad:CCP, M221Ba:CCC, M221Bb:CCC, M221Da:CPP
Federal Lands: USFS (Daniel Boone?, Land Between the Lakes)
Synonymy: UNESCO FORMATION CODE: I.B.3a (UNESCO 1973) B, Eastern Broadleaf Forests: 102: Beech-Maple Forest (Fagus-Acer) (Kuchler 1964) B, Western Mesophytic Forest (Braun 1950) I. The terms "western mesophytic" and "mesic upland" rely upon moisture and topographic position to establish community boundaries., Beech - Maple Forest (Braun 1950) I. The "Beech - Maple Forest" community also includes a significant forest community type of the glaciated mesic forests of the northeastern United States., Fagus - Acer saccharum - Liriodendron / Rhus radicans community (Voigt and Mohlenbrock 1964) =, Beech-maple-tuliptree forest (matrix, large patch) (CAP pers. comm. 1998), Fagus grandifolia - Acer saccharum type (Franklin et al. 1993), Beech - Sugar Maple: 60 (Eyre 1980) B. Beech - Maple Unglaciated Subtype., Terrestrial: Forest: Hardwood (TNC 1985) B
References: Behler 1988, Braun 1950, Bull and Farrand 1977, CAP pers. comm. 1998, Campbell 2001, Clark and Hutchinson 1994, Craighead 1949, Duncan and Duncan 1988, Evans 1991, Eyre 1980, Faircloth 1971, Fike 1999, Fralish 1987, Fralish 1988b, Franklin et al. 1993, Illinois Nature Preserve Commission 1973, Jenkins and Pallardy 1993, Kuchler 1964, Little 1980, Mohlenbrock 1986, Niering 1979, Schafale and Weakley 1985, Schwartz and Schwartz 1959, Society of American Foresters 1967, TNC 1985, TNC 1995a, UNESCO 1973, Voigt and Mohlenbrock 1964, White and Madany 1978
Authors: M. Guetersloh, mod. D. Faber-Langendoen 04-00, MCS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL002411
FAGUS GRANDIFOLIA - LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA - CARYA CORDIFORMIS / LINDERA BENZOIN / PODOPHYLLUM PELTATUM FOREST
American Beech - Tuliptree - Bitternut Hickory / Northern Spicebush / May-apple Forest
Northern Coastal Plain/Piedmont Basic Mesic Hardwood Forest G4? (02-05-09)
Concept: This association comprises luxuriant mesophytic forests of deep, sheltered ravines with base-rich soils in the northern portions of the Coastal Plain and adjacent Piedmont. In the Piedmont, these soils are derived from amphibolite and other mafic rocks. Coastal Plain habitats are in ravines that have downcut into Tertiary shell deposits or limesands. Fagus grandifolia and Liriodendron tulipifera are the principal canopy dominants, with Carya cordiformis and Quercus rubra as constant associates. Additional trees that may be locally important are Juglans nigra, Ulmus rubra, Quercus alba, Quercus muehlenbergii, and Fraxinus americana. Stands typically have dense understories dominated by Asimina triloba and Lindera benzoin. Herb layers are lush, but tend to be characterized by patch-dominance of clonal forbs and ferns. Podophyllum peltatum, Arisaema triphyllum, Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum, and Polystichum acrostichoides are widespread and abundant herbs. More locally abundant herbs include Cystopteris protrusa, Deparia acrostichoides, Diplazium pycnocarpon, Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Nemophila aphylla, and Actaea pachypoda. Many additional low-cover herbaceous species are present in plot-sampled stands.
Comments: This association is based on the analysis of plot data from 12 stands in Caroline, Fluvanna, Gloucester, Hanover, Stafford, Surry, and York counties, VA. Homogeneity = 0.642. Mean species richness = 51. This community type occurs in small to large patches, and is likely to be somewhat locally but widely distributed in the Piedmont from Virginia northward. Coastal Plain occurrences are probably very local. The scarcity of oaks, and the abundance of Fagus and Liriodendron, in documented stands may be artifacts of past logging. An outstanding occurrence of this association, containing scattered residual trees 1.0-1.5 m dbh, has been documented at Crow's Nest, Stafford County, VA. Similar vegetation is reported from calcareous ravines in southern Maryland by Rod Simmons. Comparable stands also occur in Rock Creek Park, Washington, DC (G. Fleming pers. obs.).
States/Provinces: MD:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 52:C, 57:C, 58:C
USFS Ecoregions: 231Ae:CCC, 231Af:CCC, 232Br:CCC
Federal Lands: NPS (Colonial)
References: Fleming et al. 2001, Fleming unpubl. data
Authors: ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006055
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
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