Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance contains vegetation that occurs along small streams and along levees and terraces in somewhat larger alluvial systems. Stand are dominated by Fagus grandifolia. Other canopy species may include Quercus alba, Quercus rubra var. rubra, Quercus laurifolia, Acer barbatum, Quercus shumardii var. shumardii, Liquidambar styraciflua, Magnolia grandiflora (within its range), Quercus michauxii, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Acer rubrum var. rubrum. The subcanopy and shrub layers often contain Aesculus pavia, Aesculus sylvatica, Arundinaria gigantea, Asimina triloba, Ilex opaca var. opaca, Cornus florida, Cornus foemina, Magnolia acuminata, Carpinus caroliniana ssp. caroliniana, Hamamelis virginiana, Ostrya virginiana var. virginiana, Oxydendrum arboreum, Alnus serrulata, Calycanthus floridus var. floridus, Rhododendron arborescens, and Vaccinium elliottii; and fairly dense coverage by Cyrilla racemiflora over Kalmia latifolia is present in an occurrence in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Herbaceous species common to forests in this alliance include Carex glaucescens, Carex intumescens, Chasmanthium latifolium, Anemone quinquefolia var. quinquefolia, Anemone virginiana var. virginiana, Carex blanda, Carex laxiflora var. laxiflora, Carex striatula, Chamaelirium luteum, Chrysogonum virginianum, Dioscorea quaternata, Dichanthelium spp., Gelsemium sempervirens, Polystichum acrostichoides var. acrostichoides, Heuchera americana, Mitchella repens, Hexastylis minor, Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia, and Xanthorhiza simplicissima among others. The distribution of this alliance is incomplete, but it is known from at least the Piedmont of North Carolina, Virginia, and South Carolina, the West Gulf Coastal Plain, southern Indiana, Pennsylvania, and possibly southern Ontario in Canada.
Comments: This alliance needs review. Although these forests experience flooding, perhaps even annually, the vegetation does not appear to be influenced by these disturbances (i.e., Fagus grandifolia is dominant), so these associations might be better placed in an upland alliance. Mixed beech-other species forests occur in Texas, but these lack enough Fagus to be included here. Work is needed to determine alliance placement. The so-called 'beechy bottoms' of Kentucky and southern Illinois, which are high terraces with beech dominant, could be included here. This alliance is present along the Notaway and Meherrin rivers in Virginia (G. Fleming pers. comm.).
Range: The distribution of this alliance is incomplete, but it is known from at least the Piedmont of North Carolina, Virginia, and South Carolina, the West Gulf Coastal Plain of Louisiana and Texas, southern Indiana, Pennsylvania, and possibly southern Ontario in Canada. This alliance is also found in Georgia and Mississippi, and may possibly occur in Kentucky (?) and Tennessee (?).
States/Provinces: AL GA IN KY LA MD MS NC OH? ON PA? SC TN TX
TNC Ecoregions: 40:?, 41:C, 43:P, 44:C, 45:C, 48:C, 49:C, 50:C, 52:C, 53:C, 56:C, 57:P, 58:P
USFS Ecoregions: 221Eg:CCC, 221Fa:CCC, 221Ha:CCC, 221Hb:CCC, 222Db:CCC, 222Dc:CCP, 222De:CCC, 222Df:CCP, 222Ei:CCP, 222Ek:CCC, 222El:CCP, 222Em:CCP, 222Fc:CCP, 222Fd:CCP, 222Fe:CCC, 222Ff:CCC, 222Gc:CPP, 222Gd:CPP, 222Ge:CPP, 222Ha:CCC, 222Hb:CCC, 222Hf:CCC, 222If:CCC, 222Jh:CCP, 222Ji:CCC, 222Jj:CCP, 231Aa:CCP, 231Ac:CCC, 231Ae:CCC, 231Af:CCC, 231Ao:CCC, 231Bc:CPP, 231Bd:CPP, 231Db:CCC, 231Dd:CCC, 231Ea:CCC, 232Ba:CCC, 232Bb:CC?, 232Bc:CC?, 232Bd:CC?, 232Be:CC?, 232Bf:CC?, 232Bg:CC?, 232Bh:CC?, 232Bi:CC?, 232Bj:CCC, 232Bk:CC?, 232Bl:CC?, 232Bm:CC?, 232Bn:CCP, 232Bo:CC?, 232Bp:CC?, 232Bq:CCC, 232Br:CCP, 232Bs:CCP, 232Bt:CC?, 232Bu:CCP, 232Bv:CCP, 232Bx:CC?, 232Bz:CC?, 232Cg:CPP, 232Fa:CCC, 232Fc:CCP, 234Ab:???, 234An:???
Federal Lands: COE (Jordan Lake); DOD (Fort Benning, Fort Gordon); NPS (Kings Mountain, Shiloh?); USFS (Angelina, Daniel Boone, Kisatchie, Sabine NF?, Sam Houston?, Talladega, Uwharrie)
Synonymy: American Beech-Southern Magnolia Series, in part (Diamond 1993); American Beech Cover Type (Jackson 1979)
References: Diamond 1993, Faber-Langendoen et al. 1996, Fleming pers. comm., Jackson 1979, Martin and Smith 1991
Authors: J.E. MOHAN, MP, Southeast Identifier: A.284
FAGUS GRANDIFOLIA - QUERCUS SPP. - ACER RUBRUM - JUGLANS NIGRA FOREST
American Beech - Oak species - Red Maple - Black Walnut Forest
Beech - Mixed Hardwood Floodplain Forest G2G3 (98-06-22)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Interior Highlands Small Stream Floodplain / Terrace Forests (427-10; 18.104.22.168)
Concept: This beech - hardwoods floodplain forest community is found in the central United States and adjacent Canada. Stands occur on high terraces of small stream floodplains. Soils are well-drained and at least partially alluvial in origin, flooding only occasionally. The closed, deciduous tree canopy has a mixed set of species, with few dominants. Typical constants include Acer saccharum, Carya cordiformis, Celtis occidentalis, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus americana, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus rubra, Tilia americana, Ulmus americana, and Ulmus rubra among the more typical upland species, and Acer negundo, Acer rubrum, Acer saccharinum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Platanus occidentalis among the more typical bottomland species. Perhaps the more dominant include Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Liriodendron tulipifera, Platanus occidentalis, and Ulmus americana. The tall shrubs, subcanopy trees, and vine species include Carpinus caroliniana, Hamamelis virginiana, Lindera benzoin, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Toxicodendron radicans. A wide variety of herbaceous species are found.
Comments: This type can be difficult to distinguish from upland beech - maple forests or lower terrace floodplain forests. Vegetation will probably need to be linked to physical site characteristics in order to accurately identify the type, including features such as small stream terraces, presence of occasional, though not annual, flooding, and some alluvial material (Anderson 1996). Disturbed sites may often be more dominated by the wetter and more rapidly colonizing floodplain species, such as Acer saccharinum or Populus deltoides (Anderson 1996). A related mesic hardwood floodplain type with dominance of Acer and Carya rather than Fagus is the Acer saccharum - Carya cordiformis / Asimina triloba Floodplain Forest (CEGL005035). Attribution of Ontario to this type may be stretching this type too far north. Ontario crosswalk may better fit with Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana - Tilia americana / Acer spicatum / Allium tricoccum - Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest (CEGL005008). The distribution in central Indiana and western Ohio should be reviewed.
Range: This beech - hardwoods floodplain forest community is found in the central United States and adjacent Canada, ranging from Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana and Ontario, east to Maryland and possibly Pennsylvania.
States/Provinces: IN:S1, KY:S?, MD:S?, OH?, ON:S?, PA?, TN?
TNC Ecoregions: 44:C, 45:C, 48:C, 49:C, 50:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Eg:CCC, 221Fa:CCC, 221Ha:CCC, 221Hb:CCC, 222Db:CCC, 222Dc:CCP, 222De:CCC, 222Df:CCP, 222Ei:CCP, 222Ek:CCC, 222El:CCP, 222Em:CCP, 222Fc:CCP, 222Fd:CCP, 222Fe:CCC, 222Ff:CCC, 222Gc:CPP, 222Gd:CPP, 222Ge:CPP, 222Ha:CCC, 222Hb:CCC, 222Hf:CCC, 222If:CCC, 222Jh:CCP, 222Ji:CCC, 222Jj:CCP
Federal Lands: USFS (Daniel Boone)
Synonymy: Mixed Floodplain Forests (Anderson 1996) =
References: Anderson 1996
Authors: D. Faber-Langendoen, MCS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL005014
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
|Return to Table of Contents|
This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010