Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance includes a variety of bottomland communities of moderately wet floodplains of the lower Piedmont, Interior Low Plateau, Coastal Plain, and possibly the Cumberland Plateau, ranging into the Ouachita Mountains and Ozarks, and dominated by Liquidambar styraciflua with or without some combination of Liriodendron tulipifera and Acer rubrum as codominants. Canopy and subcanopy associates vary with geography and substrate, but may include Acer barbatum, Ilex opaca var. opaca, Aesculus sylvatica, Quercus nigra, Carya cordiformis, Platanus occidentalis, Betula nigra, Carpinus caroliniana ssp. caroliniana, Cornus florida, Crataegus flava, Fagus grandifolia, Juglans nigra, Morus rubra var. rubra, Ostrya virginiana var. virginiana, Oxydendrum arboreum, Pinus echinata, Prunus serotina var. serotina, Quercus alba, Quercus rubra var. rubra, Ulmus rubra, Ulmus americana, Ulmus alata, Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana, Nyssa sylvatica, Fraxinus americana, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica. The shrub layer often is well-developed and species include Euonymus americana, Lindera benzoin var. benzoin, Corylus americana, Viburnum acerifolium, Viburnum nudum var. nudum, Viburnum prunifolium, Viburnum rufidulum, Hamamelis virginiana, Asimina triloba, and Ilex decidua among others. Vines are prominent and species include Vitis rotundifolia, Apios americana, Campsis radicans, Aristolochia serpentaria, Bignonia capreolata, Dioscorea quaternata, Gelsemium sempervirens, Parthenocissus quinquefolia (= var. quinquefolia), Campsis radicans, Passiflora lutea, Smilax bona-nox, Smilax glauca (= var. glauca), Smilax hugeri, Smilax rotundifolia, and Toxicodendron radicans ssp. radicans. The herbaceous layer can be species-rich and often has good sedge development. Common species in this layer include Thalictrum thalictroides, Trillium cuneatum, Arisaema triphyllum ssp. triphyllum, Asplenium platyneuron var. platyneuron, Botrychium virginianum, Carex spp., Carex impressinervia, Carex striatula, Galium circaezans, Geum canadense, Polystichum acrostichoides, and Scutellaria integrifolia among many others. Soils are relatively acid. The exotics Microstegium vimineum, Ligustrum sinense, and Lonicera japonica may be common in examples of this alliance. This alliance is fairly common in the lower Piedmont of Georgia, as well as on small stream floodplains and bottoms in all of the Interior Low Plateau of Kentucky (except the Bluegrass region) where it is somewhat successional. Liriodendron tulipifera is dominant on disturbed areas of Kentucky and is common on well-drained floodplains of Kentucky without Liquidambar styraciflua. Conversely, Liriodendron tulipifera is absent in Ouachita - Ozark examples.
Comments: Need association that is one version of a small stream swamp forest with the nominals (J. Ambrose pers. comm.).
Range: This alliance is fairly common in the lower Piedmont of Georgia (J. Ambrose pers. comm.), as well as on small stream floodplains and bottoms in all of the Interior Low Plateau of Kentucky (except the Bluegrass region) where it is somewhat successional (L. McKinney pers. comm.). Liriodendron tulipifera is dominant on disturbed areas of Kentucky and is common on well-drained floodplains of Kentucky without Liquidambar styraciflua. Conversely, Liriodendron tulipifera is absent in Ouachita - Ozark examples. This alliance is found in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Tennessee, Maryland, Virginia, and possibly in Florida (?), but not in Texas.
States/Provinces: AL AR FL? GA KY MD MS NC OK SC TN VA
TNC Ecoregions: 38:C, 39:C, 43:C, 44:C, 50:C, 52:C, 53:?, 56:C, 57:C, 58:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Hc:CCC, 222Ab:CCC, 222Ag:CCC, 222An:CCC, 222Cb:CCP, 222Cc:CCP, 222Cd:CCP, 222Ce:CCP, 222Cf:CCP, 222Cg:CCC, 222Da:CCP, 222Db:CCP, 222Dc:CCP, 222Dd:CCP, 222De:CCP, 222Dg:CCP, 222Di:CCP, 222Ea:CC?, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ec:CC?, 222Ed:CC?, 222Ee:CC?, 222Ef:CC?, 222Eg:CCP, 222Eh:CC?, 222Ei:CC?, 222Ej:CC?, 222Ek:CC?, 222En:CC?, 222Eo:CC?, 231Aa:CCC, 231Ab:CC?, 231Ac:CCC, 231Ad:CC?, 231Ae:CCC, 231Af:CCC, 231Ag:CC?, 231Ah:CC?, 231Ai:CC?, 231Aj:CC?, 231Ak:CC?, 231Al:CC?, 231Am:CC?, 231An:CC?, 231Ao:CC?, 231Ap:CC?, 231Ba:CP?, 231Bb:CP?, 231Bc:CP?, 231Bd:CP?, 231Be:CP?, 231Bf:CP?, 231Bg:CP?, 231Bh:CP?, 231Bi:CP?, 231Bj:CP?, 231Bk:CP?, 231Bl:CP?, 231Ca:CP?, 231Cb:CP?, 231Cc:CP?, 231Cd:CPP, 231Ce:CP?, 231Cf:CP?, 231Cg:CP?, 231Da:CC?, 231Db:CC?, 231Dc:CC?, 231Dd:CC?, 231De:CC?, 231Ga:CCP, 231Gb:CCP, 231Gc:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Ba:CCP, 232Bb:CCP, 232Bc:CCP, 232Bd:CCP, 232Be:CCP, 232Bf:CCP, 232Bg:CCP, 232Bh:CCP, 232Bi:CCP, 232Bj:CCP, 232Bk:CCP, 232Bl:CCP, 232Bm:CCP, 232Bn:CCP, 232Bo:CCP, 232Bp:CCP, 232Bq:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bs:CCC, 232Bt:CCP, 232Bu:CCP, 232Bv:CCP, 232Bx:CCP, 232Bz:CCP, 234Ab:PP?, 234An:PPP, M222Aa:CCC, M222Ab:CCC, M231Aa:CCC, M231Ab:CCC, M231Ac:CCC, M231Ad:CCC
Federal Lands: DOD (Arnold, Fort Benning, Fort Gordon); DOE (Oak Ridge?, Savannah River Site); NPS (Carl Sandburg Home, Cowpens, Guilford Courthouse, Kennesaw Mountain, Kings Mountain, Mammoth Cave, Ninety Six, Shiloh?); USFS (Bankhead?, Bienville, Croatan?, Daniel Boone, Delta, De Soto, Francis Marion?, Holly Springs, Homochitto, Oconee, Ouachita, Ozark, Sumter, Talladega, Tombigbee, Tuskegee, Uwharrie)
Synonymy: Lowland Oak - Sweetgum Forest, in part (Foti 1994b); Piedmont/Low Mountain Alluvial Forest, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990)
References: Ambrose pers. comm., Foti 1994a, Foti 1994b, Jones et al. 1981b, McKinney pers. comm., Schafale and Weakley 1990
Authors: D.J. ALLARD, MP, Southeast Identifier: A.287
LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA - QUERCUS PALUSTRIS / CARPINUS CAROLINIANA / CAREX INTUMESCENS FOREST
Sweetgum - Pin Oak / Ironwood / Bladder Sedge Forest
Coastal Plain Floodplain Forest G? (00-03-21)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Southeastern Coastal Plain Large River Bottomland Hardwood Forests (385-20; 184.108.40.206)
Concept: This bottomland forest of the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay region occurs along braided stream channels. Soils are moderately well-drained to very poorly drained sandy, silty or clay loams. The canopy is diverse, characterized by Liquidambar styraciflua, Acer rubrum, Quercus palustris, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Quercus pagoda, Quercus michauxii, and Quercus phellos. The well-developed understory is usually dominated by Carpinus caroliniana, with other associates including Ilex opaca var. opaca, Lindera benzoin, and Asimina triloba. Occasional shrubs may include Ilex verticillata, Viburnum dentatum, and Ilex decidua. The herbaceous layer is dense and is characterized by Cinna arundinacea, Carex intumescens, Carex debilis, Onoclea sensibilis, Arisaema triphyllum, and Solidago rugosa.
Range: This bottomland forest is found in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay region.
States/Provinces: MD:S?, VA?
TNC Ecoregions: 58:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Ad:CCC
References: Fleming et al. 2001, Meininger 1998
Authors: ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006602
LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA - ACER RUBRUM - LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA / MEDEOLA VIRGINIANA FOREST
Tuliptree - Red Maple - Sweetgum / Indian Cucumber-root Forest
Coastal Plain Bottomland / Tributary Forest G? (00-04-12)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Southeastern Coastal Plain Small Stream Forests (365-10; 220.127.116.11)
Concept: This bottomland forest community occurs on the Inner Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay region. It occurs along small streams and on adjacent low slopes on somewhat poorly drained sandy loams or sandy clay loams. The tree canopy is dominated by Liriodendron tulipifera and Acer rubrum, with Liquidambar styraciflua at lower abundance. Other canopy associates may include Nyssa sylvatica, Fagus grandifolia and Quercus rubra. The understory is made up of the same species as the canopy dominants, with Ilex opaca. The shrub layer is dominated by Asimina triloba, Lindera benzoin, and Ilex opaca, with less frequent associates including Clethra alnifolia, Vaccinium corymbosum, Magnolia virginiana, and Viburnum spp. The herbaceous layer is characterized by Thelypteris noveboracensis, Mitchella repens, Euonymus americana, and Medeola virginiana.
Range: This bottomland forest community occurs on the Inner Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay region.
States/Provinces: MD:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 58:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232A:CC, 232B:CC
References: Fleming et al. 2001
Authors: ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006601
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
|Return to Table of Contents|
This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010