Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: Forests in this alliance occur on the fronts, terraces, and levees of small, medium and large rivers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Southern Ridge and Valley, Interior Low Plateau, Ozark Highlands, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas Valley, East and West Gulf coastal plains, Mississippi River Alluvial Plain, Cumberland Plateau, Southern Blue Ridge, and lower Piedmont. These forests are dominated by Platanus occidentalis or a mixture of it with Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Celtis laevigata, and Acer saccharinum, as well as Acer negundo, Ulmus americana, Liquidambar styraciflua, Ulmus alata, Planera aquatica, Juglans nigra, Celtis occidentalis, Carya illinoinensis, Quercus nigra, Salix nigra, Carya cordiformis, Quercus pagoda, and Carya aquatica. The understory may be dense and typically contains Asimina triloba, Crataegus viridis, Crataegus spathulata, and Lindera benzoin. Herbaceous species that may be present include Elymus virginicus, Carex grayi, Carex lupulina, Carex abscondita, Chasmanthium latifolium, Boehmeria cylindrica, Polygonum virginianum, Elymus virginicus, Pilea pumila, Leersia lenticularis, and others. Vines may be abundant and species include Bignonia capreolata, Toxicodendron radicans, and Smilax tamnoides (= Smilax hispida). This alliance does not include typical alluvial forests of the upper Piedmont and Blue Ridge, but forests in this alliance may occur in these areas in restricted calcareous situations. In Arkansas, these forests occur during point bar succession as intermediates between forests dominated by Salix and Populus, and those dominated by Carya illinoinensis. In Kentucky and Arkansas, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Ulmus rubra, and Ulmus americana are common in these forests. According to K. Ribbeck (pers. comm.) 'Sycamore - River Birch - Silver Maple' forests of the Pearl River in Louisiana are included here.
Comments: The relationship between this alliance and the I.B.2.N.d Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Ulmus americana - Celtis (occidentalis, laevigata) Temporarily Flooded Forest Alliance (A.286) needs to be defined more clearly. It appears that this alliance (A.288) may be more northern in distribution and more often located closer to the river and in areas of more active deposition, but further research is needed. In Texas, where Acer saccharinum is absent, these forests occur on the Sabine and Neches rivers. In Arkansas, forests in this alliance that are dominated by Celtis laevigata, Platanus occidentalis, and Carya illinoinensis occur in areas with flowing water, active deposition, and lots of meandering; still water and lesser deposition are needed for succession to oaks (T. Foti pers. comm.).
Range: Forests in this alliance occur on the fronts, terraces, and levees of small, medium and large rivers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Southern Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau, Interior Low Plateau, Ozark Highlands, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas Valley, East and West Gulf coastal plains, Mississippi River Alluvial Plain, and lower Piedmont. It also ranges into the southern midwestern United States. This alliance does not include typical alluvial forests of the upper Piedmont and Blue Ridge, but forests in this alliance may occur in these areas in restricted calcareous situations.
States/Provinces: AL AR CT GA IN KY LA MA MD MO MS NC NH NY OH? PA RI SC TN TX VA VT? WV
TNC Ecoregions: 24:C, 29:C, 31:C, 32:?, 37:C, 38:C, 39:P, 40:P, 41:C, 42:C, 43:C, 44:C, 45:C, 49:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:C, 53:P, 56:P, 57:C, 58:P, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 63:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212E:C?, 212Fb:CCP, 212Fc:CCC, 221A:CC, 221Bd:CCC, 221D:CC, 221Ec:CCC, 221Ed:CCP, 221Ef:CCP, 221Eg:CCC, 221Ha:CCC, 221Hb:CCC, 221Hc:CCC, 221He:CCC, 222Ab:CCC, 222Ac:CCC, 222Ad:CCC, 222Ae:CCC, 222Af:CCC, 222Ag:CCC, 222Ah:CCC, 222Aj:CCC, 222Ak:CCC, 222Am:CCC, 222An:CCC, 222Cb:CCP, 222Cd:CCP, 222Ce:CCP, 222Cg:CCC, 222De:CCP, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ec:CCC, 222Ed:CCP, 222Eh:CCP, 222Em:CCP, 222En:CCC, 222Eo:CCC, 222Fa:CCC, 222Fb:CCC, 222Fc:CCC, 222Fd:CCC, 222Hb:CCC, 222Hf:CCC, 222I:C?, 222O:C?, 231Aa:CCC, 231Ae:CCC, 231Af:CCC, 231Ak:CCP, 231Al:CCC, 231Ap:CCC, 231Ba:CCP, 231Bc:CCP, 231Bd:CCP, 231Be:CCC, 231Bg:CCP, 231Bj:CCP, 231Bk:CCP, 231Bl:CCP, 231Cd:CCC, 231Da:CCP, 231Dc:CCC, 231Ef:CCC, 231Eg:CCP, 231Eh:CCC, 231Ga:CCC, 231Gb:CCC, 231Gc:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Bj:CCC, 232Bk:CCP, 232Bl:CCP, 232Bq:CCP, 232Br:CCP, 232Bs:CCC, 232Bu:CCP, 232Bv:CCP, 232Ca:CPP, 232Fa:CCP, 232Fb:CCP, 232Fc:CCP, 232Fd:CCP, 234Aa:CCP, 234Ab:CC?, 234Ac:CCC, 234Ae:CCP, 234Ag:CCC, 234Ah:CC?, 234Am:CCC, 234An:CCC, 251Cd:CPP, 251Eb:CCC, 255Da:CCP, 255Db:CCC, 315:C, M212B:??, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ab:CCC, M221Cd:CCC, M221Da:CCC, M221Db:CCP, M221Dd:CCC, M222Aa:CCC, M222Ab:CCC, M231:P
Federal Lands: DOD (Arnold, Fort Benning); NPS (Congaree Swamp, Great Smoky Mountains, Harpers Ferry, Kennesaw Mountain, Ninety Six, Rock Creek, Shiloh); USFS (Angelina, Bankhead, Bienville, Chattahoochee, Daniel Boone, Davy Crockett, De Soto, Delta?, Holly Springs?, Homochitto, Jefferson, Kisatchie, Oconee, Ozark, Pisgah?, Sabine NF, St. Francis?, Sam Houston, Tombigbee?, Tuskegee); USFWS (San Bernard?)
Synonymy: IIA7g. Sycamore - Sweetgum - American Elm Riverfront Forest, in part (Allard 1990); Riparian forest, in part (Evans 1991); Alluvial forest, in part (Evans 1991); Sycamore-Willow Series, in part (Diamond 1993); Sycamore - Sweetgum - American Elm: 94, in part (Eyre 1980)
References: Allard 1990, Diamond 1993, Evans 1991, Eyre 1980, Foti pers. comm., Ribbeck pers. comm.
Authors: D.J. ALLARD, MOD., MP, Southeast Identifier: A.288
PLATANUS OCCIDENTALIS - ACER SACCHARINUM - JUGLANS NIGRA - ULMUS RUBRA FOREST
Sycamore - Silver Maple - Black Walnut - Slippery Elm Forest
Sycamore - Silver Maple Calcareous Floodplain Forest G4 (01-01-04)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Interior Highlands Large River Floodplain Forests and Shrublands (426-35; 188.8.131.52)
Concept: This sycamore - silver maple floodplain forest occurs along riverfronts in calcareous areas of the east-central United States. Stands are dominated by Platanus occidentalis, with a mixture of other species, including Acer negundo, Acer saccharinum, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Juglans nigra, Ulmus americana, and Ulmus rubra. Shrubs include Asimina triloba and Lindera benzoin. Vines may be abundant, including Parthenocissus quinquefolia and Toxicodendron radicans. Herbaceous species include Arisaema triphyllum, Asarum canadense, Boehmeria cylindrica, Elymus virginicus, Pilea pumila, Polygonum virginianum, and others.
Comments: This type could be in Illinois and Missouri. It is not well characterized yet and may be difficult to distinguish from other floodplain forests where Platanus is conspicuous without being dominant. For example, see Acer saccharinum - Ulmus americana - (Populus deltoides) Forest (CEGL002586), Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Celtis spp. - Quercus spp. - Platanus occidentalis Bottomland Forest (CEGL002410), Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Ulmus americana - Celtis laevigata / Ilex decidua Forest (CEGL002427), and Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Ulmus spp. - Celtis occidentalis Forest (CEGL002014). It is possible that CEGL002410 could be merged with this type, depending on level of dominance required for Platanus.
This community type co-occurs with Acer saccharinum - Ulmus americana - (Populus deltoides) Forest (CEGL002586) in several regions of Virginia and transitional stands may be difficult to classify. Separation of the two types may relate more to a soil texture gradient than to soil fertility, which is similar across most plot samples of both types. CEGL002586 and Acer saccharinum appear to be strongly associated with sandy soils, while this unit appears to occupy heavier-textured, silt or clay-loam soils that are favorable for the development of a mixed canopy, abundant Asimina understory, and a very lush herbaceous flora.
Range: This association occurs in river and large stream floodplains in calcareous areas of the east-central United States from Indiana and Kentucky east to West Virginia, Virginia and North Carolina, and possibly Ohio. In Virginia, the type definitely occurs in the Potomac / Shenandoah River drainage, the James River drainage, and the Clinch River drainage. It is probable along the Rappahannock and Roanoke rivers, the New River, and other rivers of the Tennessee drainage in southwestern Virginia.
States/Provinces: IN:S?, KY:S?, MD:S?, OH?, TN:S?, VA:S?, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 43:, 44:C, 45:C, 49:C, 50:C, 51:C, 59:C, 61:?
USFS Ecoregions: 221D:CC, 221Ec:CCC, 221Ed:CCP, 221Ef:CCP, 221Eg:CCC, 221Ha:CCC, 221Hb:CCC, 221Hc:CCC, 221He:CCC, 222Cg:CCC, 222De:CCP, 222Eb:CCC, 222Em:CCP, 222En:CCC, 222Eo:CCC, 222Fa:CCC, 222Fb:CCC, 222Fc:CCC, 222Fd:CCC, 222Hb:CCC, 222Hf:CCC, 231Aa:CCP, 231Ae:CCP, 231Ak:CCP, 231Al:CCC, 231Ap:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ab:CCC, M221Cd:CCC, M221Da:CCC, M221Db:CCP
Federal Lands: NPS (Harpers Ferry, Shiloh); USFS (Daniel Boone, Jefferson)
Synonymy: Sycamore-green ash floodplain forest (CAP pers. comm. 1998), IIA6e. Southern Appalachian Alluvial Forest (Allard 1990) B. in part, ELTP 61: Platanus / Asarum, Wet-mesic Bottomlands (Van Kley et al. 1995) =, Silver Maple - Sycamore Forest on Base-rich Alluvium (Palmer-Ball et al. 1988) =, Platanus occidentalis - Acer negundo / Asimina triloba - Lindera benzoin / Mertensia virginica - Asarum canadense Forest (Fleming and Coulling 2001), Acer saccharinum - Acer negundo / Mertensia virginica Association (Rawinski et al. 1996)
References: Allard 1990, CAP pers. comm. 1998, Fleming and Coulling 2001, Fleming et al. 2001, Palmer-Ball et al. 1988, Rawinski et al. 1996, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Van Kley et al. 1995, Vanderhorst 2000b, Weakley et al. 1998
Authors: D. Faber-Langendoen, mod. G. Fleming and P. Coulling, SCS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL007334
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
|Return to Table of Contents|
This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010