Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: Forests in this alliance typically are dominated by Platanus occidentalis with Liquidambar styraciflua and/or Liriodendron tulipifera, and typically occur on rocky streambeds and alluvial deposits on relatively high-gradient rivers. The alliance is distributed in the upper Piedmont, Appalachian Mountains, Interior Low Plateau, Cumberland Mountains, and Cumberland Plateau regions. In the eastern part of the Interior Low Plateau, vegetation of this alliance may be in lower gradient situations. Other canopy and understory species that may be present include Aesculus sylvatica (within its range), Asimina triloba, Cornus florida, Alnus serrulata, Fraxinus americana, Acer rubrum, Carpinus caroliniana, Ulmus americana, and Fagus grandifolia in the non-montane part of the distribution. Species present in the montane occurrences include Platanus occidentalis, Liriodendron tulipifera, Betula alleghaniensis, and Betula lenta, with Carpinus caroliniana, Hamamelis virginiana, Liquidambar styraciflua, Betula nigra, Fraxinus americana, Acer rubrum, Pinus virginiana, Pinus strobus, and Tsuga canadensis. Euonymus americana is a typical shrub species in the lower elevation occurrences, while Rhododendron maximum and Leucothoe fontanesiana are common at higher elevations. Herbaceous species vary as well by geography and elevation, and may include Arisaema triphyllum, Sanicula canadensis, Saururus cernuus, Campanula divaricata, Dichanthelium dichotomum var. dichotomum, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Polystichum acrostichoides, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Viola sororia, and Viola blanda. Carex species may be common (e.g., Carex appalachica, Carex austrocaroliniana, Carex blanda, Carex crinita, Carex digitalis, Carex plantaginea, Carex swanii, and/or Carex torta).
Comments: Vegetation of the Interior Low Plateau, where there is a distribution overlap of related alliances, may also be classified in the I.B.2.N.d Platanus occidentalis - (Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Celtis laevigata, Acer saccharinum) Temporarily Flooded Forest Alliance (A.288). Consider a new alliance for montane alluvial vegetation called Liriodendron tulipifera - Fraxinus americana / Carpinus caroliniana Temporarily Flooded Forest Alliance [see North Carolina Vegetation Survey Nantahala Data].
Range: The alliance is distributed in the upper Piedmont, Appalachian Mountains, Interior Low Plateau, Cumberland Mountains, Cumberland Plateau, and Chesapeake Bay regions. In the eastern part of the Interior Low Plateau, vegetation of this alliance may be in lower gradient situations. This alliance is found in Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia, and possibly in Alabama (?) and Mississippi (?).
States/Provinces: AL? DE GA KY MD MS? NC SC TN VA
TNC Ecoregions: 43:C, 44:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:C, 58:C, 59:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Ha:CCC, 221Hb:CCC, 221Hc:CCC, 221He:CCC, 221Ja:CP?, 221Jb:CP?, 221Jc:CP?, 222C:CP, 222D:CP, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ec:CCP, 222Ed:CC?, 222Eg:CC?, 222Eh:CCP, 222En:CCC, 222Eo:CCC, 231Aa:CCP, 231Ae:CCC, 231Ag:CCC, 231Aj:CCC, 231Al:CCC, 231Be:C??, 231Ca:CPP, 231Cb:CPP, 231Cc:CPP, 231Cd:CP?, 231Cf:CPP, 231Da:CCP, 231Db:CCP, 231Dd:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Br:CCC, M221Cd:CCC, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC
Federal Lands: DOD (Arnold); NPS (Great Smoky Mountains, Kings Mountain); USFS (Chattahoochee, Cherokee, Daniel Boone, Nantahala, Pisgah, Sumter)
Synonymy: IIA7g. Sycamore - Sweetgum - American Elm Riverfront Forest, in part (Allard 1990); Piedmont/Low Mountain Alluvial Forest, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Rocky Bar and Shore, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Alluvial forest, in part (Evans 1991); Eutrophic Seasonally Flooded Forest, in part (Rawinski 1992); Sycamore - Sweetgum - American Elm: 94, in part (Eyre 1980)
References: Allard 1990, Evans 1991, Eyre 1980, Flinchum 1977, McLeod 1988, Newell and Peet 1995, Rawinski 1992, Schafale and Weakley 1990
Authors: S. SIMON/G. KAUFFMAN/D.M., MP, Southeast Identifier: A.289
PLATANUS OCCIDENTALIS - (LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA, LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA) / ASIMINA TRILOBA FOREST
Sycamore - (Sweetgum, Tuliptree) / Common Pawpaw Forest
Coastal Plain Streamside Forest G3G4 (00-03-21)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Southeastern Coastal Plain Riverfront and Levee Forests and Shrublands (385-30; 220.127.116.11)
Concept: This Inner Coastal Plain streamside forest of the Chesapeake Bay region occurs along braided and intermittent streams on active and former stream channels. Flooding frequency is annual, and soils are alluvial clay loams or sandy clay loams. The tree canopy is dominated by Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Betula nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Acer rubrum. Less frequent associates may include Quercus michauxii, Ulmus americana, and Quercus phellos. The subcanopy is of variable cover and is characterized by Asimina triloba, Carpinus caroliniana, Lindera benzoin, and Ilex opaca, with Cornus florida found less frequently. Typical vines include Toxicodendron radicans, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Smilax rotundifolia. The most abundant herbs are Boehmeria cylindrica and Arisaema triphyllum. Other herbaceous associates include Geum virginianum, Carex debilis, Lycopus virginicus, Impatiens capensis, Pilea pumila, Claytonia virginica, Ranunculus abortivus, and Cardamine concatenata. The vine Campsis radicans may also be present.
Range: This forest is found in the Inner Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay region.
States/Provinces: DE:S?, MD:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 58:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Ad:CCC, 232Br:CCC
References: Fleming et al. 2001, Thompson et al. 1999
Authors: ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006603
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
|Return to Table of Contents|
This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010