Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance is widely distributed in the eastern United States. Stands are dominated by broad-leaved deciduous trees and well-developed shrub and herbaceous strata. They are characterized by dense growth and a great diversity of species. Basal area can reach 40-42 m2/ha. Acer rubrum and Fraxinus pennsylvanica are consistently abundant overstory species, but Fraxinus profunda (in the southern parts of this alliance's range), Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus lyrata, Quercus bicolor, and Ulmus americana occur almost as frequently, and Nyssa aquatica and Taxodium distichum occur sporadically in the southern parts of this alliance's range. Acer saccharinum may dominate in parts of the range. The shrub layer can include a diverse mixture including Carpinus caroliniana, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Forestiera acuminata, and Ilex decidua, but Itea virginica is characteristic of southern stands of this alliance. Even with dense shading, the herbaceous layer is usually well-developed, displaying a preponderance of Boehmeria cylindrica, Carex spp., Glyceria spp., Juncus spp., Laportea canadensis, Leersia spp., and Pilea pumila. Vitis spp. are characteristic vines of this community, but Toxicodendron radicans and Campsis radicans are also prominent.
Sites which support stands of this alliance have level or nearly level soils that formed in water-deposited clayey or loamy sediments on floodplains of the Mississippi and other rivers and large perennial streams in the Coastal Plain. These soils are flooded or saturated for a significant portion of the growing season, and water may be ponded for most of the year in shallow depressions. Flooding can reach 1 m. Flooding occurs during the winter and spring and often extends into the growing season.
Comments: Stands of this alliance support a diverse assemblage of bottomland hardwoods. Perhaps the most diagnostic is the mixture of bottomland hardwoods found there. Species typical of wetter and drier sites are commonly encountered, but the diagnostic environmental feature is shallow standing water or soil saturation for a significant portion of the growing season. Slight ridges within these flooded zones provide drier habitat for less flood-tolerant species.
Range: This alliance is widely distributed in the eastern United States in southern Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, southeastern Missouri, eastern Arkansas (?), Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee (?), Texas, South Carolina (?), North Carolina, central-western New York and the Lake Erie Plain of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Virginia; and in Canada in southern Ontario.
States/Provinces: AR CT DE IL IN KY LA MA MD ME MI MO NB NC NH NJ NY OH ON PA QC? RI SC TN TX VA VT WI/p>
TNC Ecoregions: 31:C, 36:C, 38:C, 40:P, 42:C, 43:C, 44:C, 45:C, 46:C, 47:P, 48:C, 49:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:C, 53:P, 56:P, 57:C, 58:C, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 62:C, 63:C, 64:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Cb:CCC, 212Da:C??, 212Ea:CP?, 212Eb:CPP, 212Ec:CPP, 212Fa:CCP, 212Fb:CCP, 212Fc:CCP, 212Fd:CCP, 212Ga:CPP, 212Gb:CPP, 212Hb:CCP, 212Hd:CCC, 212He:CCC, 212Je:CPP, 212Ka:CPP, 221Ab:CCC, 221Ac:CCC, 221Ad:CCC, 221Ae:CCC, 221Af:CCC, 221Ag:CCC, 221Ah:CCP, 221Ai:CCC, 221Ak:CCC, 221Al:CCC, 221Ba:CCC, 221Bb:CCC, 221Bc:CCC, 221Bd:CCP, 221Da:CCC, 221Db:CCP, 221Dc:CCC, 221Ea:CCP, 221Eb:CCP, 221Ed:CC?, 221Ef:CCC, 221Fa:CCC, 221Fb:CCC, 222Ao:CPP, 222Ca:CCP, 222Cb:CCP, 222Cc:CCP, 222Cd:CCP, 222Ce:CCP, 222Cf:CCP, 222Cg:CCP, 222Ch:CCP, 222Db:CCC, 222Df:CCC, 222Eg:CCP, 222Ek:CCC, 222Ga:CCC, 222Ha:CCC, 222Hb:CCC, 222Ia:CCC, 222Ic:CCP, 222Id:CCP, 222Ie:CC?, 222If:CCC, 222Ig:CCC, 222Ja:CC?, 222Je:CCC, 222Jg:CCC, 222Jh:CCC, 222Ji:CCC, 222Jj:CCC, 222Ke:CCC, 222Kf:CCC, 231Aa:CCC, 231Ae:CCP, 231Af:CCP, 231Ak:CCP, 231Al:CCP, 231Am:CCP, 231An:CCP, 231Ao:CCP, 231Ap:CCP, 231Gb:CCC, 231Gc:CCC, 232Aa:CCP, 232Ad:CCC, 232Ba:CCP, 232Bb:CC?, 232Bc:CCP, 232Bd:CC?, 232Be:CC?, 232Bf:CC?, 232Bg:CC?, 232Bh:CC?, 232Bi:CC?, 232Bj:CC?, 232Bk:CC?, 232Bl:CC?, 232Bm:CC?, 232Bn:CC?, 232Bo:CC?, 232Bp:CC?, 232Bq:CC?, 232Br:CCC, 232Bs:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bu:CC?, 232Bv:CC?, 232Bx:CCC, 232Bz:CC?, 232Ca:CC?, 232Cb:CC?, 232Cd:CC?, 232Ce:CC?, 232Cf:CC?, 232Cg:CC?, 232Ch:CCC, 232Ci:CC?, 232Cj:CC?, 232Dc:CCC, 234Aa:CCC, 234Ac:CCC, 234Ad:CCP, 234Ae:CCP, 234Af:CCC, 234Ag:CCP, 234Ah:CCC, 234Ai:CC?, 234Aj:CCP, 234Ak:CCP, 234Al:CCP, 234Am:CCP, 234An:CCP, 251Dg:CCC, 255Db:CCC, M212Ad:CP?, M212Bb:CCP, M212Bc:CCC, M212Bd:CCC, M212Ca:CC?, M212Cb:CCC, M212Cc:CCC, M212Cd:CC?, M212D:CP, M221Aa:CCP, M221Ab:CCC, M221Bb:CCP, M221Bd:CCP, M221Be:CCC, M221Ca:CP?, M221Cb:CPP, M221Da:CCP, M221Dc:CCC, M222A:??, M231A:?? /p>
Federal Lands: NPS (Acadia, Congaree Swamp, Great Smoky Mountains); USFS (Daniel Boone?, Ouachita?, Ozark?); USFWS (Little River, Reelfoot?, San Bernard) Acer rubrum forest alliance (Hoagland 1998a); Acer rubrum - Nyssa aquatica forest (Robertson et al. 1984); Red maple-green ash. ? (Wharton et al. 1982); Spruce-Fir Boreal Swamp (Swain and Kearsley 2001); Alluvial Red Maple Swamp (Swain and Kearsley 2001); Black Ash Swamp (Swain and Kearsley 2001); Black Ash-Red Maple-Tamarack Calcareous Seepage Swamp (Swain and Kearsley 2001)
References: Faber-Langendoen et al. 1996, Golet et al. 1993, Hoagland 1998a, Robertson et al. 1984, Swain and Kearsley 2001, Wharton et al. 1982
Authors: ECS, MP, Midwest Identifier: A.316
ACER RUBRUM - FRAXINUS (PENNSYLVANICA, AMERICANA) / LINDERA BENZOIN /
SYMPLOCARPUS FOETIDUS FOREST
Red Maple - (Green Ash, White Ash) / Northern Spicebush /Skunk-cabbage Forest
Southern New England Red Maple Seepage Swamp G4G5 (98-06-25)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Northern Coastal Plain Acid Seepage Swamp Forests (360-15; n/a)
Concept: Acidic seepage swamp of southern New England and adjacent areas dominated by Acer rubrum. These generally occur in seasonally saturated situations on slightly sloping hillsides, along small streams, or in basins that receive overland flooding in addition to groundwater influence. In general, these swamps are acidic and have some seepage indicators, but are not particularly species-rich. Soils are shallow to moderately deep mucks over mineral soils. Acer rubrum dominates the canopy; Fraxinus pennsylvanica or Fraxinus americana are usually also found in the canopy. Fraxinus nigra is not generally associated with this type, and if present occurs only as scattered individuals. Conifers, like Tsuga canadensis or Pinus strobus, are generally absent or occur in very low abundance. The shrub layer may be fairly open to quite dense, depending on the amount of canopy closure. Shrub species commonly include Ilex verticillata, Rhododendron viscosum, Clethra alnifolia, Lindera benzoin, and less commonly Vaccinium corymbosum, Lyonia ligustrina, Toxicodendron vernix, Viburnum dentatum, and Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides (= Viburnum cassinoides). The herbaceous layer is variable in cover, and Symplocarpus foetidus and Osmunda cinnamomea are nearly always present. Other herbaceous species include Impatiens capensis, Carex stricta, Veratrum viride, Osmunda regalis, Onoclea sensibilis, Thelypteris palustris, and Glyceria spp. Microtopography is generally pronounced, resulting from tip ups. Tree seedlings and Sphagnum mosses are common on hummocks, but do not in general form extensive carpets. Additional nonvascular species can include Plagiomnium cuspidatum (= Mnium cuspidatum) and Calliergon spp.
States/Provinces: CT:S?, MA:S3, MD:S?, NH:S?, NJ:S3S5, NY:S4S5, RI:S?, VT:S2
TNC Ecoregions: 60:C, 61:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Fa:CCP, 212Fb:CCP, 212Fc:CCP, 212Fd:CCP, 221Ab:CCC, 221Ac:CCC, 221Ad:CCC, 221Ae:CCC, 221Af:CCC, 221Ag:CCC, 221Ai:CCC, 221Ak:CCC, 221Al:CCC, 221Ba:CCC, 221Bd:CCP, 221Da:CCC, 221Dc:CCC, 232Aa:CCP
Synonymy: Inland Red Maple Swamp (Breden 1989) B, Southern New England acidic seepage swamp B, Southern New England stream bottom forest (Rawinski 1984), Red or Silver Maple-Green Ash Swamp (Thompson 1996), Palustrine Broad-leaved Deciduous Forested Wetlands (PFO1) (Cowardin et al. 1979)
References: Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, Cowardin et al. 1979, Edinger et al. 2002, Enser 1993, Golet et al. 1993, MENHP 1991, Metzler and Barrett 2001, Rawinski 1984, Reschke 1990, Swain and Kearsley 2001, Thompson 1996, Thompson and Sorensen 2000
Authors: ECS Confidence: 1 Identifier: CEGL006406
ACER RUBRUM - FRAXINUS PENNSYLVANICA / SAURURUS CERNUUS FOREST
Red Maple - Green Ash / Lizard's-tail Forest
Chesapeake Red Maple Swamp G? (00-03-21)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Northern Coastal Plain Swamp Forests (490-12; n/a)
Concept: This red maple swamp community of the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay region occurs on poorly drained to very poorly drained, base-rich, alluvial soils that are seasonally to semipermanently flooded. A thin organic horizon overlies sandy or silt clay loam soils. This swamp has pronounced hummock-and-hollow microtopography. The tree canopy is closed to partially open and dominated by Acer rubrum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Quercus lyrata. Associated canopy species may include Nyssa sylvatica, Quercus phellos, and Populus heterophylla. The shrub layer includes Lindera benzoin, Leucothoe racemosa, Ilex verticillata, Viburnum spp., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica saplings. The herbaceous layer is characterized by Saururus cernuus, Peltandra virginica, Boehmeria cylindrica, Triadenum walteri, Cinna arundinacea, Pilea pumila, Impatiens capensis, Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis, Leersia oryzoides, Leersia virginica, Glyceria striata, Commelina virginica, Rumex verticillatus, Carex spp., and Polygonum arifolium.
Range: This red maple swamp community occurs in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay region.
States/Provinces: DE:S?, MD:S?, NJ:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 52:C, 58:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Ad:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bx:CCC
References: Bowman 2000, Breden et al. 2001, Fleming 2001, Meininger 1998, Thompson et al. 1999
Authors: ECS Confidence: 1 Identifier: CEGL006606
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
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