Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance includes forests dominated by some combination of Nyssa aquatica, Nyssa biflora, or Nyssa ogeche without substantial Taxodium distichum, that occur in seasonally flooded floodplains, sloughs, and backswamps. Acer rubrum var. rubrum, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus lyrata, Ulmus americana, and Liquidambar styraciflua are characteristic canopy species. The canopy layer in these forests often is dense, but strata below are sparse to very sparse. Fraxinus caroliniana, Itea virginica, and Sebastiania fruticosa are common understory species. Common herbaceous species of forests in this alliance include Carex gigantea, Phanopyrum =gymnocarpon (= Panicum gymnocarpon), Pluchea sp., Carex bromoides, Rhynchospora corniculata, Leersia lenticularis, Proserpinaca pectinata, and Pleopeltis polypodioides.
Comments: This alliance includes both blackwater and brownwater small stream swamp forests dominated by Nyssa ogeche within its range of the Coastal Plain of Georgia, northern Florida, and southeastern South Carolina. This alliance is attributed to Congaree Swamp (NPS), but not to any association; alliance was not noted in TNC 1998b.
Range: Distribution of this alliance is the Atlantic Coastal Plain from southern Virginia to Florida, and the Gulf Coastal Plain to eastern Texas. This alliance is found in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, and possibly Texas (?).
States/Provinces: AL AR FL GA LA MD MS NC SC TX VA
TNC Ecoregions: 31:C, 38:P, 40:P, 41:C, 42:C, 43:P, 44:P, 52:P, 53:C, 55:P, 56:C, 57:C, 58:P
USFS Ecoregions: 222Cb:CCP, 222Cc:CCP, 222Ce:CCP, 222Cf:CCP, 222Cg:CCP, 222Ch:CCP, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ef:CC?, 231Aa:CC?, 231Ae:CC?, 231Af:CCC, 231Ba:CCP, 231Bb:CCP, 231Bc:CCP, 231Bd:CCP, 231Bf:CC?, 231Bg:CCP, 231Bh:CCP, 231Bi:CCP, 231Bj:CCP, 231Bl:CCP, 231Fa:CCC, 232Ba:CCP, 232Bb:CCP, 232Bc:CCP, 232Bd:CCP, 232Be:CCP, 232Bf:CCP, 232Bg:CCC, 232Bh:CCP, 232Bi:CCP, 232Bj:CCP, 232Bk:CCP, 232Bl:CCP, 232Bm:CCP, 232Bn:CCP, 232Bo:CCP, 232Bp:CCP, 232Bq:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bs:CCC, 232Bt:CCP, 232Bu:CCP, 232Bv:CCC, 232Bx:CCP, 232Bz:CCP, 232Ca:CCC, 232Cb:CCC, 232Cc:CCP, 232Cd:CCP, 232Ce:CCC, 232Cf:CCC, 232Cg:CCP, 232Ch:CCC, 232Ci:CCC, 232Cj:CCP, 232Dc:CCC, 232Fa:CCP, 232Fb:CCP, 232Fc:CCP, 232Fd:CCP, 232Fe:CCP, 234Aa:CCP, 234Ac:CCC, 234Ad:CCC, 234Ae:CCC, 234Af:CCP, 234Ag:CCP, 234Ah:CCC, 234Ai:CCC, 234Aj:CCC, 234Ak:CCC, 234Al:CC?, 234Am:CCC, 234An:CCC
Federal Lands: DOD (Fort Benning, Fort Gordon, Fort Stewart); DOE (Savannah River Site); NPS (Congaree Swamp); USFS (Apalachicola, Kisatchie, Uwharrie)
Synonymy: IIA4d. Tupelo Swamp, in part (Allard 1990); Basin Swamp, in part (FNAI 1992a); Basin Swamp, Blackgum Swamp subtype (FNAI 1992b); Water Tupelo - Swamp Tupelo: 103, in part (Eyre 1980); Coastal Plain Bottomland Hardwoods, Blackwater Subtype, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990)
References: Allard 1990, Eyre 1980, FNAI 1992a, FNAI 1992b, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Wharton 1978, Whipple et al. 1981
Authors: A.S. WEAKLEY, MP, Southeast Identifier: A.323
NYSSA BIFLORA - (LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA) / ITEA VIRGINICA / SAURURUS CERNUUS FOREST
Swamp Blackgum - (Sweetgum) / Virginia-willow / Lizard's-tail Forest
Small Blackwater Stream Swamp
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Southeastern Coastal Plain Backswamp/Slough Floodplain Forests (385-10; 188.8.131.52)
Concept: This community occurs in seasonally flooded low areas (stream channels) along small streams with intermittent flow in regions of very subdued topographic relief in the Outer Coastal Plain of South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and likely North Carolina and Georgia. The canopy consists of Nyssa biflora, sometimes with admixture of Liquidambar styraciflua. Herbs and shrubs are few, and these strata are poorly developed. Itea virginica, Leucothoe racemosa, and Clethra alnifolia are characteristic of the shrub layer. Saururus cernuus can be a common herb.
Comments: Examples occur at Nemours Plantation (Beaufort County, South Carolina) and from the Blackwater Ecological Preserve (Isle of Wight County, Virginia).
Range: This community occurs in the Outer Coastal Plain of South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and likely North Carolina and Georgia.
States/Provinces: GA?, MD:S?, NC?, SC:S?, VA?
TNC Ecoregions: 56:C, 57:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Br:CCC, 232Cb:CCC, 232Ce:CCC
Synonymy: CT-D. Nyssa sylvatica biflora / Acer rubrum / Clethra alnifolia (Blackgum Swamp) (Frost and Musselman 1987), Swamp black gum dominance type (Tiner 1995)
References: Frost and Musselman 1987, Peet et al. 2002, Tiner 1995
Authors: SCS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL007847
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
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