Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Comments: This alliance may only cover a portion of the variation in wooded seeps in Arkansas, where a calcareous shale and a sandstone seep type need to be defined (D. Zollner pers. comm.).
Range: This alliance is known from the Cumberland Plateau of Alabama, Kentucky and Tennessee, the Allegheny Plateau of Kentucky, the upper East Gulf Coastal Plain of Kentucky and Tennessee, the Piedmont of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, the Arkansas River Valley, and the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. It may also be found in Georgia (?), Oklahoma, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, West Virginia, and Illinois (?).
States/Provinces: AL AR CT DE GA IL? KY MA MD ME NC NH NJ NY OK PA RI SC TN VA VT WV
TNC Ecoregions: 32:P, 38:P, 39:C, 40:C, 41:C, 43:C, 44:C, 49:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:C, 53:P, 56:P, 57:C, 58:C, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 62:C, 63:C, 64:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Aa:CCP, 212Ab:CCP, 212Ba:CCP, 212Bb:CCP, 212Ca:CCP, 212Cb:CCP, 212Da:CCP, 212Db:CCP, 212Dc:CCP, 212Ec:CPP, 212Ed:CP?, 212Fa:CCC, 212Fb:CCC, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CCC, 212Ga:CCC, 212Gb:CCC, 221Aa:CCC, 221Ab:CCP, 221Ac:CCC, 221Ad:CCC, 221Ae:CCC, 221Af:CCC, 221Ag:CCC, 221Ah:CCC, 221Ai:CCC, 221Aj:CCP, 221Ak:CCP, 221Al:CCC, 221Am:CCC, 221Ba:CCP, 221Bb:CCC, 221Bc:CCP, 221Bd:CCC, 221Da:CCC, 221Db:CCC, 221Dc:CCC, 221Ea:CCP, 221Eb:CCP, 221Fa:CPP, 221Fb:CPP, 221Hc:CCC, 221He:CCC, 222Ab:CCC, 222Ag:CCC, 222Ah:CCC, 222An:CCC, 222Ca:CC?, 222Cb:CCC, 222Ce:CCC, 222Cg:CCC, 222Dc:CCP, 222Dg:CCP, 222Eg:CC?, 222Eo:CCC, 222G:CC, 222Ia:CPP, 231Aa:CCC, 231Ad:CCC, 231Ae:CCC, 231Af:CCC, 231Ak:CC?, 231Al:CCC, 231An:CCP, 231Ao:CCP, 231Bc:CCC, 231Ca:CCC, 231Cd:CCC, 231Db:CCC, 231Dc:CCC, 231De:CCC, 231Ec:CCC, 231F:CC, 231Ga:CCC, 231Gb:CCC, 231Gc:CCC, 232Aa:CCP, 232Ab:CCC, 232Ac:CCP, 232Ad:CCP, 232Ba:CCP, 232Bb:CCP, 232Bc:CCP, 232Bq:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bz:CCC, 232Ch:CP?, M212Aa:CC?, M212Ab:CC?, M212Ac:CCP, M212Ad:CCP, M212Bb:CCC, M212Bc:CCP, M212Bd:CCC, M212Cb:CCC, M212Cc:CCP, M212Eb:CCP, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ab:CCC, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ad:CCC, M221Ba:CCP, M221Bb:CCP, M221Bc:CCC, M221Bd:CCP, M221Be:CCP, M221Bf:CCP, M221Ca:CP?, M221Cb:CPP, M221Cc:CP?, M221Ce:CP?, M221Da:CCC, M221Db:CC?, M221Dd:CCC, M222Aa:CCC, M222Ab:CCC, M231Aa:CCC, M231Ab:CCC, M231Ac:CCC, M231Ad:CCC
Federal Lands: DOD (Fort Jackson, Pine Bluff Arsenal); NPS (Assateague Island, Big South Fork, Shiloh?); USFS (Angelina, Bankhead, Chattahoochee, Cherokee, Daniel Boone, George Washington, Kisatchie?, Ouachita, Ozark, Sabine NF, Talladega, Uwharrie); USFWS (Felsenthal?, Mountain Longleaf, Overflow?, Pond Creek?)
Synonymy: IIA9a. Forested Mountain Seep, in part (Allard 1990); Wooded Seep, in part (Foti 1994b); Appalachian acid seep, in part (Evans 1991); Cretaceous Hills forested acid seep (Evans 1991); Low Elevation Seep (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Boggy Streamside Seep (Schafale pers. comm.); Red Maple Swamp (Swain and Kearsley 2001); Black Gum Swamp (Swain and Kearsley 2001); Red maple - black gum palustrine forest (Fike 1999); Acidic Broadleaf Swamp. subtypes a and d (Smith 1991); Circumneutral Broadleaf Swamp, in part (Smith 1991)
References: Allard 1990, Breden 1989, Campbell 1989b, Evans 1991, Fike 1999, Foti 1994b, Funk 1975, Funk and Fuller 1978, Harvill 1967, Heckscher 1994, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Schafale pers. comm., Smith 1991, Swain and Kearsley 2001
Authors: K.D. PATTERSON/J. CAMPBEL, RW, East Identifier: A.348
ACER RUBRUM - NYSSA SYLVATICA - BETULA ALLEGHANIENSIS / SPHAGNUM SPP. FOREST
Red Maple - Blackgum - Yellow Birch / Peatmoss species Forest
Red Maple - Black Gum Basin Swamp G? (97-12-01)
Concept: This blackgum basin swamp of the northeastern United States is found from the central Appalachians north to central New England, at the northern range limit for Nyssa sylvatica. It occupies saturated or seasonally wet basins, typically perched basins in small watersheds within upland forests. In most settings, the mineral soil is overlain with a shallow to deep peat layer. Conditions are highly acidic and nutrient-poor. The tree canopy varies from an open woodland to nearly complete. Shrubs are well represented and may be locally dense. Herbs are likewise patchy, and the herb layer is usually dominated by only a few species. The bryoid layer varies, but is often extensive. Hummock-and-hollow topography is often pronounced, with bryophytes common on the hummocks and in those hollows where water does not stand for long periods. The canopy is dominated by Acer rubrum and Nyssa sylvatica; however, even where red maple is more abundant, the longevity and stature of the black gum trees give them a strong impact. Betula alleghaniensis, Picea rubens, Pinus strobus, and Tsuga canadensis may be minor canopy associates. The most abundant shrubs are Ilex verticillata and Vaccinium corymbosum; associated shrub species include Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides, Nemopanthus mucronatus, Kalmia angustifolia, Lyonia ligustrina, and Cephalanthus occidentalis. Osmunda cinnamomea is the characteristic dominant in the herb layer, with associates including Osmunda regalis, Thelypteris palustris, Woodwardia virginica, Glyceria canadensis, Coptis trifolia, Carex trisperma, Carex intumescens, Triadenum virginicum, and Symplocarpus foetidus. Mosses are primarily Sphagnum spp., including Sphagnum palustre and Sphagnum magellanicum. These swamps are distinguished from other basin swamps in the Northern Appalachians by the presence of Nyssa sylvatica. They are distinguished from black gum swamps further south by the absence of more central-Appalachian species such as Liquidambar styraciflua, Rhododendron maximum, Rhododendron viscosum, and Magnolia virginiana.
States/Provinces: CT:S?, MA:S2, MD?, ME:S2, NH:S1S2, NJ:S?, NY:S?, PA:S?, VT:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 60:C, 61:C, 62:C, 63:C, 64:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212A:CC, 212B:CC, 212C:CC, 212D:CC, 212Fa:CCC, 212Fb:CCC, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CCC, 212Ga:CCC, 212Gb:CCC, 221Aa:CCC, 221Ae:CCC, 221Af:CCP, 221Ag:CCP, 221Ah:CCC, 221Ai:CCC, 221Ak:CCP, 221Al:CCC, 221Bb:CCC, 221Bd:CCP, M212A:CC, M212Bb:CCC, M212Bc:CCP, M212Bd:CCC, M212Cb:CCP, M212Cc:CCP, M212Eb:CCP
Synonymy: Black gum-red maple swamp (NAP pers. comm. 1998), Southern New England acidic seepage swamp, black gum swamp (Rawinski 1984), Southern New England basin swamp, black gum association (Rawinski 1984), Red Maple-Black Gum Swamp (Thompson 1996), Palustrine Broad-leaved Deciduous Saturated Forested Wetland (PFO1B) (Cowardin et al. 1979)
References: Cain and Penfound 1938, Cowardin et al. 1979, Edinger et al. 2002, Fike 1999, Gawler 2002, Golet et al. 1993, Metzler and Barrett 2001, NAP pers. comm. 1998, Rawinski 1984, Sperduto 2000b, Sperduto et al. 2000b, Swain and Kearsley 2001, Thompson 1996, Thompson and Sorensen 2000, Vogelmann 1976, Windisch 1995c, Zebryk 1990
Authors: S.C. Gawler, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006014
ACER RUBRUM - NYSSA SYLVATICA - LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA - POPULUS HETEROPHYLLA FOREST
Red Maple - Blackgum - Sweetgum - Swamp Cottonwood Forest
Cape May Lowland Swamp G1 (97-11-18)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Northern Coastal Plain Acid Seepage Swamp Forests (360-15; n/a)
Concept: Typically this community occupies the headwaters of streams where occurrences probably receive groundwater discharge. Topography is gently rolling with a series of wet depressions alternating with drier islands. Stands generally have high diversity, one occurrence was found to contain 20-25 species of trees and 40 species of shrubs. Typical canopy species include Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, Fraxinus profunda, and Nyssa sylvatica. Magnolia virginiana and Ilex opaca are frequent subcanopy trees. Characteristic shrubs include Clethra alnifolia, Rhododendron viscosum, Lindera benzoin, and Itea virginica. In addition to these generally 'acid-loving' species a number of typical calcicoles occur in this community including Cirsium muticum, Euphorbia purpurea, Platanthera flava var. flava. Several species with a more southern distribution are also found in this community including Quercus michauxii, Quercus phellos, Quercus nigra, Triadenum walteri, and Populus heterophylla.
Range: This community is apparently restricted to the Cape May portion of New Jersey's Outer Coastal Plain.
States/Provinces: MD?, NJ:S1
TNC Ecoregions: 58:P, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Ab:CCC
Synonymy: Cape May Lowland Swamp (Breden 1989) B
References: Bernard 1963, Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, Stone 1911
Authors: M. Anderson, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006013
ACER RUBRUM - NYSSA SYLVATICA - MAGNOLIA VIRGINIANA FOREST
Red Maple - Blackgum - Sweetbay Forest
Southern Red Maple - Black Gum Swamp Forest G3? (97-12-01)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Northern Coastal Plain Acid Seepage Swamp Forests (360-15; n/a)
Concept: This acidic red maple swamp forest community of the eastern middle-latitude states is a nutrient-poor wetland forest occurring in poorly drained depressions. Soils are typically moderately deep to deep muck over mineral soil, with pools of standing water at the surface. Acidic waters originate from groundwater-fed seepage, with little to no overland seasonal flooding. This community is characterized by Acer rubrum and Nyssa sylvatica in the canopy, which may be quite open in some examples. Canopy associates include Magnolia virginiana, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Persea palustris plus occasional incidental Liriodendron tulipifera or Pinus taeda. Upland trees may occur on drier hummocks. The shrub layer is characterized by Vaccinium corymbosum, as well as Clethra alnifolia, Ilex verticillata, Ilex opaca, Viburnum nudum, Lindera benzoin, and Rhododendron viscosum. The herbaceous layer is generally poorly developed but diverse and may include Symplocarpus foetidus, Triadenum virginicum, Lythrum lineare, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Woodwardia areolata, Carex folliculata, Carex lonchocarpa, Carex collinsii, Carex atlantica, Bartonia paniculata, Parnassia asarifolia, Helonias bullata, Chelone glabra, Oxypolis rigidior, and Osmunda cinnamomea. Sphagnum spp. and other mosses are common.
States/Provinces: DE:S?, MD:S?, NJ:S4S5, NY:S4S5, PA:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 58:C, 61:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Da:CCC, 221Db:CCC, 232Aa:CCP, 232Ab:CCC, 232Ac:CC?, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bz:CCC, 232Ch:CP?
Federal Lands: NPS (Assateague Island)
Synonymy: Cape May lowland swamp (Breden 1989) B. in part, Inland red maple swamp (Breden 1989), Pine barrens hardwood swamp (Breden 1989) B. in part, Acer rubrum - Quercus nigra - Nyssa sylvatica swamp (Harvill 1967). Virginia portion of Assateague Island., Broadleaf swamp forest (Heckscher 1994). described from Cumberland County, New Jersey., Woodland fresh marsh community (Hill 1986), Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica / Magnolia virginiana / Woodwardia areolata - Symplocarpus foetidus Saturated Forest (Patterson pers. comm.)
References: Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, Edinger et al. 2002, Ehrenfeld and Gulick 1981, Fike 1999, Fleming et al. 2001, Harvill 1967, Heckscher 1994, Hill 1986, McCormick 1979, Patterson pers. comm., Robichaud and Buell 1973, Sipple and Klockner 1984, Windisch 1995b
Authors: ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006238
ACER RUBRUM - NYSSA SYLVATICA HIGH ALLEGHENY PLATEAU, CENTRAL APPALACHIAN FOREST
Red Maple - Blackgum High Allegheny Plateau, Central Appalachian Forest
Central Appalachian Forested Acid Seep G? (97-12-01)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Appalachian Highlands Forested Acid Seeps (470-20; 220.127.116.11)
Concept: This acidic deciduous swamp occurs in the central Appalachian Mountains north of the Cumberland drainage. Characteristic trees are Acer rubrum and Nyssa sylvatica, with other associates including Tsuga canadensis and Betula alleghaniensis. The shrub stratum includes Alnus serrulata, Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia), Ilex verticillata, Vaccinium corymbosum, Rhododendron maximum, and Rubus hispidus. Characteristic herbs include Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis, Carex folliculata, Carex trisperma, Carex intumescens, Carex stricta, and Poa trivialis. Sphagnum spp. are typical. This community occurs on substrates which are saturated for extended periods during the growing season but which rarely have standing water, including forested seeps, hillsides, streamheads, floodplain edges, and poorly drained depressions. Occurrences tend to be small.
States/Provinces: KY:S?, MD:S?, PA:S?, VA?, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 49:C, 50:C, 59:C, 60:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212F:PP, 212G:PP, 221Eb:CCP, 221He:CCC, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ad:CCC, M221Bb:CCP, M221Bc:CCC, M221Bd:CCP, M221Be:CCP, M221Bf:CCP
Synonymy: Red maple-black gum swamp (CAP pers. comm. 1998)
References: Anderson et al. 1998, CAP pers. comm. 1998, Fike 1999
Authors: ECS Confidence: 3 Identifier: CEGL006132
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
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