Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance, found in the central, eastern, and southeastern United States, contains rocky woodlands dominated by Juniperus virginiana. Associated woody species include Quercus muehlenbergii, Quercus stellata, Celtis tenuifolia, Ulmus alata, Cercis canadensis, and Fraxinus quadrangulata on calcareous or circumneutral sites; and Liquidambar styraciflua and others on old fields. Some examples occur as shale woodlands in the Ouachita Mountains, rimrock glades and cliffs, and as fire-suppressed glades and prairies. Some examples occur on rich granitic substrates in the Piedmont. In Louisiana, this community is found on calcareous clays of the Jackson Formation. This alliance occurs in the Piedmont, Interior Low Plateau, West Gulf Coastal Plain, Ozark Plateau, Ouachita Mountains, and Arkansas Valley. More information is needed on the range of variability and the exact distribution of this alliance.
Note that Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana-dominated communities occurring in old pastures, cleared calcareous areas, and so forth are placed in the I.A.8.N.c Juniperus virginiana Forest Alliance (A.137), whether the canopy is closed or open.
Comments: In Louisiana, this alliance is found on calcareous clays of the Jackson Formation. Some examples occur on rich granitic substrates in the Piedmont.
Range: This alliance is found in southern Indiana, southern Missouri, Alabama (?), Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky (?), Louisiana, North Carolina, Tennessee, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Virginia (?), and in Ontario, Canada.
States/Provinces: AL? AR CT DE GA KY LA MA MD MO NC NH? NJ NY ON RI SC? TN VA VT WV
TNC Ecoregions: 32:C, 33:C, 37:C, 38:C, 39:C, 40:C, 41:C, 43:?, 44:C, 48:C, 50:C, 52:C, 58:C, 60:C, 61:C, 62:C, 64:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212A:CC, 212B:CC, 212Ee:CC?, 212Fc:CCP, 221Aa:CC?, 221Ab:CCC, 221Ae:CCC, 221Af:CCC, 221Bd:CCC, 221Dc:CCC, 221Hc:C??, 221Jb:CCC, 222Ad:CC?, 222Ae:CC?, 222Af:CCP, 222Ag:CCP, 222Am:CC?, 222Ca:CCC, 222Cb:CCC, 222Cg:CCC, 222Da:CCC, 222Db:CCC, 222Dc:CCC, 222Dj:CCC, 222Ea:CCC, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ec:CCC, 222Ed:CCC, 222Eg:CCC, 222Ej:CCC, 222Ek:CCC, 222En:CCC, 222Eo:CCC, 222Fc:CCC, 222Fd:CCC, 222I:CC, 231Ad:CCC, 231Af:CCC, 231Ba:CCC, 231Be:CC?, 231Cc:CC?, 231Cd:CC?, 231Cf:CCC, 231Da:CCC, 231E:CC, 231Ga:CCP, 231Gb:CCC, 232Aa:CCC, 232Ab:CC?, 232Ac:CCC, 232Bj:CCC, 232Bz:CCC, 232Fa:CCC, 234Ab:???, 234Ac:???, 251E:CC, 251F:CC, 255Ad:CCC, 311A:CC, 332E:CC, M221:C, M222A:CC, M231A:CC
Federal Lands: DOD (Arnold); NPS (Chickasaw NRA, New River Gorge); USFS (Chattahoochee, Daniel Boone?, Ouachita, Ozark, Uwharrie)
Synonymy: Juniper - Hardwood Woodland, in part (Foti 1994b); Piedmont Acidic Cliff, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Granitic Flatrock, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Juniperus virginiana woodland alliance (Hoagland 1998a); T2A2bI. Juniperus virginiana - Quercus spp., in part (Foti et al. 1994); Eastern Redcedar: 46, in part (Eyre 1980); Circumneutral Rocky Summit/Rock Outcrop (Swain and Kearsley 2001); Calcareous Rocky Summit/Rock Outcrop (Swain and Kearsley 2001); Maritime Juniper Woodland/Shrubland (Swain and Kearsley 2001)
References: Eyre 1980, Faber-Langendoen et al. 1996, Foti 1994a, Foti 1994b, Foti et al. 1994, Hoagland 1998a, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Swain and Kearsley 2001
Authors: D.J. ALLARD, RW, Midwest Identifier: A.545
JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA VAR. VIRGINIANA / MORELLA PENSYLVANICA WOODLAND
Eastern Red-cedar / Northern Bayberry Woodland
Maritime Red-cedar Woodland (97-11-18)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Southeastern Coastal Plain Maritime Stable Dune Forests and
Woodlands (240-50; n/a)
Concept: This maritime woodland community dominated by Juniperus virginiana occurs on sand dunes, upper edges of salt marshes, and less commonly on rocky headlands of the northern and mid-Atlantic coast. The physiognomy of this association is variable, ranging from dense tall-shrub thickets to open woodlands; trees are generally shorter than 4 m. Canopy trees are stunted and salt-pruned. Juniperus virginiana may form pure stands, but more often grows in association with Pinus rigida, Quercus stellata, Prunus serotina, Amelanchier canadensis, Ilex opaca, or Quercus velutina, which tend to have low percent cover. In the southern portion of the range Pinus taeda, Quercus falcata, Diospyros virginiana, and Quercus phellos can be infrequent canopy associates. A shrub layer may be well-developed where the canopy is more open and include Morella pensylvanica (= Myrica pensylvanica), Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera) (at the southern end of the range), Juniperus communis, Baccharis halimifolia, Iva frutescens, or Vaccinium corymbosum. Vines can be dense in the shrub layer and extend into the canopy; species include Toxicodendron radicans, Smilax rotundifolia, Smilax glauca, and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Herbs are usually patchily distributed in openings and include many species from the surrounding dune associations among others. They include Opuntia humifusa, Dichanthelium ovale, Schizachyrium scoparium, Deschampsia flexuosa, Cyperus grayi, Polygonella articulata, Hieracium gronovii, Panicum amarum var. amarulum, Solidago sempervirens, Panicum virgatum, Spartina patens, and Lechea intermedia.
Range: This association occurs along the North Atlantic coast from Delaware to Massachusetts.
States/Provinces: DE:S1, MA:S1, MD:S?, NJ:S1, NY:S1, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 58:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Aa:CC?, 221Ab:CCC, 232Aa:CCC, 232Ab:CC?, 232Ac:CCC, 232Bz:CCC
Synonymy: Coastal dune woodland (Breden 1989), High red cedar thicket, Red cedar woodland, Red cedar-pine woodland (Martin 1959b), Red Cedar Maritime Forest (Greller 1977), Maritime Forest on Dunes: Maritime Red Cedar Forest/Woodland Variant (Lundgren 2000), SNE Maritime Forest on Dunes/Maritime Juniper Forest (Rawinski 1984)
References: Bowman 2000, Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, Clancy 1996, Edinger et al. 2002, Fleming et al. 2001, Greller 1977, Lundgren 2000, Martin 1959b, Rawinski 1984, Reschke 1990, Swain and Kearsley 2001
Authors: S.L. Neid, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006212
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report II. Woodland
|Return to Table of Contents|
This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010