Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: Tidal swamp woodlands of the mid-Atlantic that occur on tidal rivers and receive diurnal flooding with water less than 5 ppt salinity; waters generally oligohaline to fresh. This alliance includes swamp woodlands of low stature found at the fresh tidal marsh/streamside swamp forest boundary. The vegetation is a complex of regularly flooded tidal sediments and tree hummocks raised above the level of regular tidal influence. The hummocks support Acer rubrum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Nyssa sylvatica, and in Delaware, Chamaecyparis thyoides. One association in North Carolina contains Acer negundo in the canopy with lesser amounts of Nyssa aquatica, Taxodium distichum, and Ulmus rubra. Shrub and vine species include Vaccinium corymbosum, Leucothoe racemosa, Rhododendron viscosum, Clethra alnifolia, Rosa palustris, Smilax rotundifolia, Smilax walteri, Ampelopsis arborea, Sicyos angulatus, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Vitis rotundifolia, Matelea gonocarpos, Smilax rotundifolia, Clematis crispa, and Toxicodendron radicans. Herbaceous species that occur in the tidal sediments include Zizania aquatica, Impatiens capensis, Acorus calamus, Cinna arundinacea, Nelumbo lutea, Mikania scandens, Peltandra virginica, and Sagittaria latifolia.
Comments: This alliance may occur in Maryland on Nanticoke [see data collected by Smoot Major 9-95 and verify that these are woodlands and not forests]. Gary Fleming recommends moving at least the Virginia association to I.B.2.N.h Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Acer rubrum - Ulmus americana Tidal Forest Alliance (A.356).
Range: This alliance is found in North Carolina, Maryland (?), New Jersey, New York, and Virginia.
States/Provinces: CT DE MA MD NC NJ NY VA
TNC Ecoregions: 57:C, 58:C, 61:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Ac:CCC, 221Ae:CCC, 221Ag:CCC, 221Ba:CCC, 232Aa:CCP, 232Ab:CC?, 232Ac:CCC, 232Ad:CCP, 232Ba:CC?, 232Bb:CC?, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bx:CCC, 232Cb:CCC, 232Ch:CCC
Synonymy: Red Maple: 108, in part (Eyre 1980); Estuarine Intertidal: Fresh/Brackish Tidal Swamp (Swain and Kearsley 2001)
References: Eyre 1980, Swain and Kearsley 2001
Authors: ECS, JT, East Identifier: A.658
FRAXINUS (PROFUNDA, PENNSYLVANICA) - (NYSSA BIFLORA) / POLYGONUM ARIFOLIUM WOODLAND
(Pumpkin Ash, Green Ash) - (Swamp Blackgum) / Halberd-leaf Tearthumb Woodland
Ash-Blackgum Freshwater Tidal Swamp G3 (98-12-03)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Atlantic and Gulf Coast Tidal Hardwood Swamp Forests (202-90; n/a)
Concept: This open- to closed-canopy swamp occurs on fresh tidal rivers from Delaware to Virginia and is best developed on the Chesapeake Bay drainage. It occurs at the upper reaches of tidal influence (and somewhat beyond in some cases) and generally receives diurnal or irregular tidal flooding. The canopy is dominated by few tree species, generally Fraxinus profunda, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Nyssa biflora. Other canopy associates vary among occurrences and often include Nyssa sylvatica, Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, Magnolia virginiana, Fraxinus profunda, Ulmus americana, and Pinus taeda. The shrub layer is well-developed and includes Lindera benzoin, Clethra alnifolia, Leucothoe racemosa, Ilex verticillata, Ilex opaca, Ilex laevigata, Alnus serrulata, Rhododendron viscosum, Viburnum dentatum, Viburnum nudum, Morella cerifera, Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium fuscatum, Itea virginica, Rosa palustris, and Cornus foemina. Alnus maritima is also characteristic in Delaware and Maryland. Vines may be dense and include Smilax rotundifolia, Toxicodendron radicans, Apios americana, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Bignonia capreolata, and Dioscorea villosa. The herbaceous layer is variable in composition and richness. Common associates include Polygonum arifolium, Polygonum sagittatum, Peltandra virginica, Saururus cernuus, Carex bromoides, Impatiens capensis, Boehmeria cylindrica, Carex intumescens, Leersia oryzoides, Commelina virginica, Cicuta maculata, Arisaema triphyllum, Thalictrum pubescens, Thelypteris palustris, Woodwardia areolata, Carex stricta, Zizania aquatica, Cinna arundinacea, Osmunda cinnamomea, and Osmunda regalis. The invasive exotic Murdannia keisak can also occur in this association. This association is differentiated from tidal swamps to the north by the presence of species of southern affinity, including Magnolia virginiana, Nyssa biflora, and Pinus taeda.
Comments: Acer rubrum - Fraxinus pennsylvanica / Polygonum spp. Woodland (CEGL006165) is the northern analog of this association. This association is differentiated from tidal swamps to the north by the presence of species of southern affinity, including Magnolia virginiana, Nyssa biflora, and Pinus taeda.
Range: This association is restricted to tidal rivers in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia.
States/Provinces: DE:S3S4, MD:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 57:P, 58:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232A:C?, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bx:CCC, 232Ch:CCC
Synonymy: Ash-blackgum swamp (Rheinhardt 1992) F, Maple-sweetgum swamp (Rheinhardt 1992) F
References: Berdine 1998, Bowman 2000, Fleming 2001, Fleming et al. 2001, Rheinhardt 1991, Rheinhardt 1992, Tiner 1985a
Authors: S.L. Neid, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006287
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report II. Woodland
|Return to Table of Contents|
This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010