Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
V. HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Concept: This alliance is found throughout the northern states of the United States, excluding the Great Plains states. It is a wide-ranging alliance with much variability in species composition and habitat. Stands of this alliance have a dense graminoid cover, generally over 1 m tall, with either a flat or tussocky microtopography. Tall shrubs may occupy as much as 25% cover. Calamagrostis canadensis is the characteristic dominant but can be associated with Phalaris arundinacea or a variety of Carices. Other associates include, in the Northeast, shrubs such as Viburnum nudum, Alnus incana, or Alnus serrulata, Viburnum dentatum, Spiraea alba, and graminoids such as Agrostis gigantea (= Agrostis alba). In the Midwest, typical associates include several Carices, such as Carex stricta, Carex rostrata, or Carex lacustris, and occasionally Poa palustris or Glyceria grandis (Harris et al. 1996). The ground layer can be a heavy mat of grass stems and leaves, with patches of bare soil present in wetter locations.
The habitat of this alliance is typically mineral soil or well-decomposed peat, usually held together by a dense root mat. Stands are found in floodplains of small streams, beaver meadows, and lakeshores. The hydrology is typically seasonally flooded (Harris et al. 1996). In the southern Appalachians of Tennessee and Virginia, this vegetation occurs in depression meadows and occasionally in beaver ponds.
Comments: Where Calamagrostis occurs in relatively pure stands or with a variety of forbs as codominants, stands can be assigned relatively confidently to this alliance. However, stands that are codominated by Carex species may overlap in composition with alliances such as V.A.5.N.k Carex stricta Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1397) or V.A.5.N.k Carex lacustris Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1367). These relationships require further study, as does the very broad range of the alliance, which currently stretches from California to Maine.
Range: This alliance ranges over much of the northern and western United States. In the eastern United States, it is found from Vermont south and west through the New England states into Virginia, West Virginia and Tennessee. It also occurs in the Upper Midwest in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. In the western United States, it is reported from almost all western states, from Montana south into Colorado, and west into Washington, Oregon and California. It has not been reported from New Mexico, Arizona or Nevada. In Canada it is reported from Ontario, but undoubtedly occurs elsewhere.
States/Provinces: BC CA CO CT DE ID MA MD ME MI MN MT ND NH NJ NY ON OR PA RI SD TN UT VA? VT WA WI WV WY
TNC Ecoregions: 10:C, 12:C, 20:C, 25:C, 26:C, 2:C, 35:C, 45:C, 47:P, 48:C, 51:C, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 62:C, 63:C, 64:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Aa:CCC, 212Ab:CCC, 212Ba:CC?, 212Bb:CCC, 212Ca:CCC, 212Cb:CCC, 212Da:CCC, 212Db:CCC, 212Dc:CCC, 212Ea:CPP, 212Eb:CPP, 212Ec:CPP, 212Ed:CP?, 212Fa:CCC, 212Fb:CCC, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CCC, 212Ga:CCC, 212Gb:CCC, 212Hj:CCC, 212Hs:CCC, 212Hx:CCC, 212Ib:CCC, 212La:CPP, 212Na:CPP, 221Aa:CCP, 221Ab:CC?, 221Ac:CC?, 221Ad:CC?, 221Ae:CCP, 221Af:CCC, 221Ag:CCC, 221Ah:CCC, 221Ai:CCC, 221Ak:CC?, 221Al:CCC, 221Am:CCP, 221Ba:CCP, 221Bb:CCC, 221Bc:CCP, 221Bd:CCC, 221Da:CPP, 221Db:CPP, 221Ea:CPP, 221Eb:CPP, 221Fa:CPP, 221Fb:CPP, 222Ia:CPP, 222Ib:CPP, 222Ic:CPP, 222Id:CPP, 222Ie:CPP, 222If:CPP, 222Jg:CCC, 222Na:CCC, 231Al:PPP, 232Ac:CCP, 232Ad:CCP, 242A:CC, 251Aa:CCC, M212Aa:CCC, M212Ab:CCC, M212Ac:CCC, M212Ad:CCP, M212Ae:CCC, M212Af:CCC, M212Ag:CCC, M212Ba:CC?, M212Bb:CCC, M212Bc:CCC, M212Bd:CCC, M212Ca:CC?, M212Cb:CCC, M212Cc:CC?, M212Cd:CCP, M212Da:CPP, M212Db:CPP, M212Dc:CPP, M212Ea:CCC, M212Eb:CCC, M212Fa:CPP, M212Fb:CPP, M221Aa:CPP, M221Ab:CPP, M221Ba:CPP, M221Bb:CPP, M221Bc:CPP, M221Bd:CPP, M221Be:CPP, M221Bf:CPP, M221Ca:CPP, M221Cb:CPP, M221Da:CCP, M221Db:CCP, M221Dc:CC?, M221Dd:CCC, M242B:C?, M242C:CC, M261A:CC, M261D:CC, M261E:CC, M331A:CC, M331D:C?, M331G:CC, M331H:CC, M331I:CC, M331J:C?, M332A:CC, M332B:CC, M332C:CC, M332D:CC, M332E:CC, M332F:CC, M333A:CC, M333B:CC, M333C:CC, M333D:CC, M334A:CC
Federal Lands: NPS (Acadia, Isle Royale, Voyageurs, Yosemite); USFS (Black Hills)
Synonymy: Meadow Marsh, in part (Harris et al. 1996); Wet Meadows, in part (Eggers and Reed 1987); Wet Meadows, in part (MNNHP 1993); Calamagrostis canadensis Series. equivalent (Mattson 1984); Calamagrostis canadensis Habitat Type. equivalent (Hansen et al. 1995); Calamagrostis canadensis Series. equivalent (Johnston 1987)
References: Cooper 1986a, Cooper and Cottrell 1990, Crowe and Clausnitzer 1997, Eggers and Reed 1987, Faber-Langendoen et al. 1996, Girard et al. 1997, Gysel 1960, Hansen et al. 1988b, Hansen et al. 1991, Hansen et al. 1995, Harris et al. 1996, Johnston 1987, Kittel et al. 1999a, Komarkova 1976, Komarkova 1986, Kovalchik 1993, MNNHP 1993, Mattson 1984, Mutel 1976, Mutel and Marr 1973, Mutz and Queiroz 1983, Padgett et al. 1989, Wilson 1969
Authors: MCS/ECS/SCS 6-96, MOD. M., RW, Midwest Identifier: A.1400
CALAMAGROSTIS CANADENSIS - PHALARIS ARUNDINACEA HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Bluejoint - Reed Canary Grass Herbaceous Vegetation
Bluejoint Wet Meadow G4G5 (00-03-31)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Northern Wet Meadows (490-23; 22.214.171.124)
Midwestern Wet Prairies and Meadows (n/a; 126.96.36.199)
Concept: This wet meadow vegetation is of widespread distribution in the northeastern and midwestern United States and central and eastern Canada. Stands occur on the floodplains of small streams, in poorly drained depressions, beaver meadows, and lakeshores. Soils are typically mineral soil or well-decomposed peat, with a thick root mat. Water regime varies between temporarily and seasonally flooded. Graminoid cover is typically dense, and can form hummocky microtopography. Calamagrostis canadensis is dominant, often occurring in almost pure stands or with tall sedges, such as Carex aquatilis, Carex lacustris, Carex rostrata, and Carex stricta. In fen transitions, Carex lasiocarpa can be present. Agrostis gigantea (= Agrostis alba), Glyceria grandis, Poa palustris, Scirpus cyperinus, and Typha latifolia are sometimes abundant. Forbs include Campanula aparinoides, Epilobium leptophyllum, Eupatorium maculatum, Iris versicolor, Polygonum amphibium, and Comarum palustre (= Potentilla palustris). Scattered shrubs, such as Viburnum nudum, Viburnum dentatum, Spiraea alba, Alnus incana, or Alnus serrulata, may be present.
Comments: This type can grade into sedge meadows. A guideline of perhaps <50% sedges may be suggested as a criteria for the definition of this type compared to sedge meadow types. Harris et al. (1996) suggest that the bluejoint meadow type is drier than sedge meadows and less peaty than shore fens.
Range: This wet meadow vegetation is widely distributed in the northeastern and midwestern United States and south-central and southeastern Canada. It ranges from Maine south to West Virginia and possibly Virginia and west to Minnesota.
States/Provinces: CT:S?, DE:S?, MA:S4, MD:S?, ME:S3, MI:S?, MN:S?, NH:S?,S?,S?, NJ:S?, NY:S5, ON:S?, PA:S?, RI:S?, TN:S?, VA?, VT:S4, WI:SU, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 35:C, 45:C, 47:P, 48:C, 51:C, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 63:C, 64:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Cb:CCC, 212Fa:CCC, 212Fb:CCC, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CCC, 212Ga:CCC, 212Gb:CCC, 212Hj:CCC, 212Hs:CCC, 212Hx:CCC, 212Ib:CCC, 212La:CPP, 212Na:CPP, 221Ae:CCP, 221Af:CCC, 221Ag:CCC, 221Ah:CCC, 221Ai:CCC, 221Al:CCC, 221Ba:CCP, 221Bb:CCC, 221Bc:CCP, 221Bd:CCC, 222Jg:CCC, 222Na:CCC, 251Aa:CCC, M212Bb:CCC, M212Bc:CCC, M212Bd:CCC, M212Cb:CCC, M212Ea:CCC, M212Eb:CCC, M221Db:???, M221Dc:???, M221Dd:???
Federal Lands: NPS (Isle Royale, Voyageurs)
Synonymy: Meadow marsh: bluejoint grass (W13) (Harris et al. 1996) =, Boreal alluvial tall meadow (NAP pers. comm. 1998), Canada bluejoint-tussock sedge meadow (CAP pers. comm. 1998), SNE low-energy riverbank community (Rawinski 1984), Shallow Emergent Marsh (Thompson 1996), Palustrine Persistent Emergent Wetland (PEM1) (Cowardin et al. 1979)
References: Breden et al. 2001, CAP pers. comm. 1998, Cowardin et al. 1979, Fike 1999, Gawler 2002, Harris et al. 1996, Metzler and Barrett 2001, NAP pers. comm. 1998, Rawinski 1984, Swain and Kearsley 2001, Thompson 1996, Thompson and Sorensen 2000
Authors: ECS Confidence: 3 Identifier: CEGL005174
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation
|Return to Table of Contents|
This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010