Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
V. HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Stands of this alliance are flooded for most or all of the growing season. Stands can have water from 0 (exposed soil) to approximately 1.5 m deep, but usually are less than 1 m. Within a stand, water levels can vary by up to 1 m during the year. The water can be fresh to mildly saline throughout most of this alliance's range; however, in the Nebraska Sandhills, some stands occur in moderately alkaline water. Across the range of this alliance, soils are deep, poorly drained, muck, peat, or mineral.
Range: This alliance is found in Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota, California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana, and in Canada in British Columbia, southern Manitoba, and northwestern Ontario. It is also known from Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia.
States/Provinces: BC CA CT DE IA ID MA MB MD ME MN MT ND NH NJ NV NY ON OR PA RI SD UT VA? VT WA WV WY
TNC Ecoregions: 10:C, 11:C, 17:C, 26:C, 2:C, 33:C, 34:C, 35:C, 46:C, 47:P, 58:C, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 63:C, 64:C, 6:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Aa:C??, 212Ab:C??, 212Ba:CP?, 212Bb:CP?, 212Ca:CC?, 212Cb:CCC, 212Da:CC?, 212Db:CC?, 212Dc:CC?, 212Ea:CC?, 212Eb:CC?, 212Ec:CCP, 212Ed:CCC, 212Fa:CCC, 212Fb:CCC, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CCC, 212Ga:CCC, 212Gb:CCC, 212La:CPP, 221Aa:CC?, 221Ab:CC?, 221Ac:CC?, 221Ad:CC?, 221Ae:CCC, 221Af:CC?, 221Ag:CC?, 221Ah:CCC, 221Ai:CCC, 221Aj:CC?, 221Ak:CC?, 221Al:CC?, 221Ba:CCC, 221Bb:CC?, 221Bc:CC?, 221Bd:CCP, 221Db:C??, 221Ea:C??, 221Fa:C??, 221Ja:C??, 221Jc:C??, 222Ia:C??, 222Ib:C??, 222Ic:C??, 222Id:C??, 222Ie:C??, 222If:C??, 222Lc:CCC, 231Aa:P??, 231Ae:P??, 231Af:P??, 231Ak:P??, 231Al:P??, 231Am:P??, 231An:P??, 231Ao:P??, 231Ap:P??, 232Ad:C??, 232Bc:C??, 232Bd:C??, 232Br:C??, 232Ch:C??, 232Cj:C??, 242A:CC, 251Aa:CCC, 251Bb:CCC, 251Be:CCC, 262A:CC, 322A:CC, 331D:CC, 331F:CC, 331G:CC, 331H:CC, 332C:CC, 341C:CC, 341E:CC, 342A:CC, 342B:CC, 342C:CC, 342D:CC, 342F:CC, 342H:CC, 342I:CC, M212Aa:C??, M212Ab:C??, M212Ac:C??, M212Ad:C??, M212Ba:C??, M212Bb:C??, M212Ca:CP?, M212Cb:CPP, M212Cc:CP?, M212Cd:CP?, M212Da:C??, M212Db:C??, M212Dc:C??, M212Ea:CCP, M212Eb:CCP, M212Fa:C??, M212Fb:C??, M221Aa:CC?, M221Ab:CCC, M221Ba:C??, M221Bd:C??, M221Be:C??, M221Ca:C??, M221Cb:C??, M221Cc:C??, M221Cd:C??, M221Da:C??, M221Db:C??, M221Dc:C??, M242A:CC, M242B:CC, M242C:CC, M261C:CC, M262A:CC, M262B:CC, M331A:CC, M331D:CC, M332B:CC, M332D:CC, M332E:CC, M332G:CC, M333A:CC, M333B:CC, M333C:CC, M333D:CC
Federal Lands: NPS (Acadia, Voyageurs); USFWS (Ouray)
Synonymy: Hardstem Bulrush Herbaceous Vegetation (Christy et al. 1998); Semipermanent ponds and lakes, slightly brackish, deep-marsh zone (Stewart and Kantrud 1971); Sandhills Marsh and Alkaline Sandhills Marsh (Steinauer 1989); Bulrush marsh (Fike 1999); Robust Emergent Marsh, in part (Smith 1991)
References: Christy et al. 1998, Faber-Langendoen et al. 1996, Faber-Langendoen et al. 1997, Fike 1999, Hansen et al. 1991, Hansen et al. 1995, Kunze 1994, Smith 1991, Steinauer 1989, Stewart and Kantrud 1971, Tolstead 1942, Weaver 1960
Authors: MCS, MOD. M.S. REID, MP, Midwest Identifier: A.1443
SCHOENOPLECTUS (TABERNAEMONTANI, ACUTUS) EASTERN HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
(Softstem Bulrush, Hardstem Bulrush) Eastern Herbaceous Vegetation
Bulrush Deepwater Marsh G? (97-12-01)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Northern Marshes (490-20; n/a)
Concept: These deepwater bulrush marshes occur across the northeastern United States and adjacent Canadian provinces. They are found in a variety of wetland settings, most commonly in quiet-water areas along the shores of ponds, lakes, rivers, and larger streams, but also in flooded basins and ditches. The vegetation occurs in deep water (usually 0.4-1 m deep) that is present in all but the driest of conditions. Seasonal spring flooding and heavy rainstorms provide nutrient input. The substrate is usually deep muck overlying mineral soil; where wave action is more prevalent, the mineral soil may be exposed. The vegetation is dominated by bulrushes and robust graminoids, with scattered emergent forbs. Trees and shrubs are absent. Dominant species are usually Schoenoplectus acutus (= Scirpus acutus), Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (= Scirpus tabernaemontani), and/or Schoenoplectus americanus (= Scirpus americanus). Associated herbs include Carex aquatilis, Carex pellita (= Carex lanuginosa), Carex utriculata, Thelypteris palustris, Typha latifolia, Asclepias incarnata, Impatiens capensis, Pontederia cordata, Sagittaria latifolia, Schoenoplectus fluviatilis (= Scirpus fluviatilis), Scutellaria lateriflora, Verbena hastata, and others. Floating-leaved and submerged plants (such as Potamogeton spp., Sparganium spp., Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum spp.) may be scattered among the emergent plants. This association is distinguished from other northeastern standing-water marsh communities by the strong dominance of tall bulrush species.
Range: This variable deepwater marsh community occurs in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canadian provinces.
States/Provinces: CT:S?, DE:S?, MA:S4, MD:S?, ME:S4, NH:S4, NJ:S2S4, NY:S5, PA:S?, RI:S?, VA?, VT:S4, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 58:?, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 63:C, 64:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212B:CP, 212Cb:CCC, 212D:CC, 212Ed:CCC, 212Fa:CCC, 212Fb:CCC, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CCC, 212Ga:CCC, 212Gb:CCC, 221Ah:CCC, 221Bd:CCP, 231:P, 232:C, M212Ea:CCP, M212Eb:CCP, M221Ab:CCC
Federal Lands: NPS (Acadia)
Synonymy: Spring swamp (Hill 1923), Bulrush marsh (CAP pers. comm. 1998), Deep Rush Marsh (Thompson 1996) B, Palustrine Narrow-leaved Persistent Emergent Wetland, Permanently Flooded (PEM5H) (Cowardin et al. 1979)
References: Bowman 2000, Breden et al. 2001, CAP pers. comm. 1998, Cowardin et al. 1979, Edinger et al. 2002, Fike 1999, Gawler 2002, Hill 1923, Northern Appalachian Ecology Working Group 2000, Sperduto 2000b, Swain and Kearsley 2000, Thompson 1996, Thompson and Sorensen 2000
Authors: S.C. Gawler, ECS Confidence: 3 Identifier: CEGL006275
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation
|Return to Table of Contents|
This Page Up-dated on April 27, 2010