Discover Maryland's Herps

Field Guide to Maryland's Frogs and Toads (Order Anura)

True Toads (Family Bufonidae)

True toads have thick, dry, warty skin and have enlarged, warty glands in the shoulder region called parotoid glands. Unlike most frogs, true toads tend to produce short hops to escape danger rather than long leaps (Conant and Collins 1998).

There are only two species of true toads found in Maryland. They include the eastern American toad (Anaxyrus americanus americanus) and the Fowler’s toad (Anaxyrus  fowleri).

The two species can be distinguished from each other based on the number of warts in each pigmented spot on the dorsum, the presence or absence of conspicuously enlarged warts on the tibia, spotting on the chest, and the amount of separation between the cranial crest and the parotoid glands (Conant and Collins 1998).

Frog and Toad Anatomy

Click on a picture or species name for profiles
of each of the 2 true toads found in Maryland.


Common Name

Scientific Name

State Status

Eastern American Toad Eastern American Toad Anaxyrus americanus americanus  
Fowler’s Toad Fowler’s Toad Anaxyrus  fowleri  
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Maryland Amphibian
and Reptile Atlas Project

"A Joint Project of the Natural History Society of Maryland, Inc. and the Maryland Department of Natural Resources"

For monthly newsletters of the Maryland Amphibian & Reptile Atlas Project click on Recent Newsletters and scroll down to the MARA Newsletters.

The Maryland Herpetology Field Guide is a cooperative effort of the MD Natural Heritage Program and the MD Biological Stream Survey within the Department of Natural Resources and their partners. We wish to thank all who contributed field records, text, and photographs, as well as support throughout its development.